Day 6 – Q 3. The 73rd Amendment Act of 1992 brought about radical changes in rural governance especially with the guarantee of one-third reservation of seats for women in Panchayati elections. Do you agree? Critically examine.
3. The 73rd Amendment Act of 1992 brought about radical changes in rural governance especially with the guarantee of one-third reservation of seats for women in Panchayati elections. Do you agree? Critically examine.
3. 1992 के 73 वें संशोधन अधिनियम ने ग्रामीण शासन में व्यापक बदलाव लाए, खासकर पंचायती चुनावों में महिलाओं के लिए सीटों के एक तिहाई आरक्षण की गारंटी के साथ। क्या आप सहमत हैं? समालोचनात्मक जांच करें।
- Brief introduction about 73rd Amendment Act and state if you agree with the statement
- Since question demands critical examination answer must include the positive changes brought out by the act and its shortcomings
- The conclusion may include some solutions
The 73rd Amendment Act of 1992 gave constitutional recognition to the Panchayati system, giving practical shape to Directive Principle of State Policy (Article 40). The act transfers the representative democracy into participatory democracy.
It can be said that the act was able to bring about changes in the rural governance of the country with:
- Democratic decentralisation: it built democracy at the grass root level in villages.
- Political accountability: through the provision of Gram Sabha as the decision-making body. As villagers get a voice in the governance of the village.
- Participatory democracy: due to regular and direct election by the citizens of the village conducted by a separate State Election Commission.
- Social empowerment and inclusive development: representation to different sections of the society like SCs and STs. Making them part of the development story.
- Financial devolution of resources based on the recommendations of State Finance Commission.
- Bottom-up approach planning process
- Efficient implementation of schemes adhering to local problems.
The change has been substantial with respect to women as they have been provided with 1/3rd reservation (in some states 50% reservation) of seats. This has resulted in:
- Women empowerment and betterment of their status in the society. As women themselves take decisions their decisions related to their problems.
- Political representation to the women
- Evidence from many examples suggests that successful Women Surpanchs in various states have brought positive changes in the lives of women of their village and also in rural governance.
At the same time the act has not been able to deliver on certain aspects in rural governance like low literacy levels in rural areas, the prevalence of Open defecation, high Maternity and Infant mortality rates, lack of physical and social infrastructure etc.
This inability is due to:
- Incomplete devolution of financial and administrative powers.
- Lack of political will on the part of state governments
- Irregular conduction of elections at the whims of state governments
- Ignoring the recommendations of State Finance Commissions etc.
Though the women reservation has brought substantial changes in the lives of women, still some problems persist due to Proxy candidature (real power vests with male counterparts), low literacy level, lack of social encouragement etc.
Thus, it is imperative for the state governments to fully devolve the financial and administrative powers to the Panchayats and strengthen the local government not only in letter but spirit.
Acceptance of 2nd ARC recommendations making Panchayats citizen-centric and complying with the 14th Finance Commission’s recommendation on financial devolution would be the steps in right direction.
Best Answer: vipasha parul