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Day 36 – Q 3.The Non-Cooperation movement and the Khilafat agitation represented a new stage in the national movement. Elaborate.

3. The Non-Cooperation movement and the Khilafat agitation represented a new stage in the national movement. Elaborate. 

गैर-सहयोग आंदोलन और खिलफाट आंदोलन ने राष्ट्रीय आंदोलन में एक नए चरण का प्रतिनिधित्व किया। विस्तृत करें।


Mahatma Gandhi promised to Indians that if Non Corporation Movement was fully implemented throughout nation then Swaraj would be ushered within an year. Unfortunately this dream could not materialise but NCM set new stage and prepared Indians for the future movements.


NCM and Khilafat Agitation brought in the following elements which was never seen before in Independence struggle:

  • Ensured Hindu-Muslim unity: The people from all religions put forth united front.
  • Class movement to Mass movement: Mass movement which saw active participation from peasants, mill workers etc. made this movement national in character opposed to previous elite movements.
  • Struggle-Truce-Struggle (STS) policy of Gandhiji.
  • It asserted political leaders of full support from people of all spheres i.e. lawyers, students, housewives etc.
  • Surrendering titles, resigning government posts, boycotting foreign goods were the highlights.
  • Except for madras, all India gave full support and faith to the movement. It was no longer a regional movement and highlighted single objective of Swaraj.
  • Boycott of foreign clothes, patronising khaki and charkha gave Indians reason to be proud of historical and cultural heritage.
  • Drastic decrease in imports and British govt. revenue exposed economic vulnerability of British, which all national leaders exploited till India attained independence.
  • Congress emerged as a strong political party, from being just a pressure group. It was perceived as the voice of Indians at large.
  • These mass movements shake the inherently condescending British Empire to treat Indians on equal footing. Round table conferences were a result of that.
  • People started taking pride in their Indian Identity and promoted Swadeshi.


Thus the movement acted as a litmus test to further movement and trailer for the movements that ensued the coming years. It might have been a failure but it taught great lessons for the future movements, gave an idea of the strength of the masses to Indian leadership and the British Government.

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