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Day 36 – Q 5.The 1930s mark the development of new strands in Indian political landscape. Do you agree? Substantiate by taking suitable examples.

5. The 1930s mark the development of new strands in Indian political landscape. Do you agree? Substantiate by taking suitable examples.

1930 का दशक भारतीय राजनीतिक परिदृश्य में नए पहलुओं के विकास को चिह्नित करता है। क्या आप सहमत हैं? उपयुक्त उदाहरण ले कर पुष्टि करें।


Indian freedom struggle evolved with time incorporating new ideas (dominion status to complete independence), new methods (3 p’s to passive resistance), bringing new sections into freedom struggle (elite to peasants and workers). There was change in nature of struggle every passing decade.


1930’s too contributed to this trend with the developments of new political strands.

  • Growing emphasis on political mobilization of hitherto left out sections of society making independence struggle inclusive in nature.
    a) Dalits:  B.R. Ambedkar seeking separate electorate for depressed classes.
    Gandhiji toured all over India to plead against untouchability Harijan sevak sangh.
  • b) Peasants and workers:

-> Formation of All India Kisan Sabha 1936.

-> formation of Congress Socialist Party, a left-wing group within the Congress . The ideal of this party was decentralized socialism with substantial share in the economic power of co-operatives, trade unions, independent farmers, and local authorities.

-> The Faizpur Session(1936) of congress was held in village which had been raising demands for the welfare of the peasants. Younger nationalists Jawahar lal Nehru and S.C.Bose raised their cause within congress.

  • Lahore session of Muslim League (1940) demanded the creation of independent Muslim state. Muslim league stuck to its two-nation theory ultimately leading to partition of country.
  • 1931 Karachi session of congress passed resolutions on fundamental rights and economic policy. The resolution tried to define what would be the meaning of Swaraj for common people and provided basis for political programmes of Congress in the years to come.
  • Congress’s support for people’s movements in princely states by passing a resolution in 1939 reversing its earlier policy of restraint. Thus, held state to be integral part of India and desired same political, social and economic freedoms in state.   
  • Growth of communalism. According to Bipan Chandra year 1937 was the dividing landmark with pre 1937, as an era of liberal communalism and the post-1937 phase was that of extreme communalism.


Thus, 1930’s was marked by number of significant events with the new ideas; new political groups; radical groups; all of which shaped future political landscape in India and continued to exert influence even after independence.

Best answer: Kamal

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