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Day 59 – Q 4.What challenges do India’s North-Eastern borders face in terms of border management and security? Discuss.

4. What challenges do India’s North-Eastern borders face in terms of border management and security? Discuss. 

सीमा प्रबंधन और सुरक्षा के मामले में भारत की उत्तर-पूर्वी सीमाओं को किन चुनौतियों का सामना करना पड़ता है? चर्चा करें।


The management of India’s international border along its North Eastern States has remained a crucial and complex issue. In an age of increasing interdependence, threats from unconventional sources pose a greater challenge to the country’s security.


Travel along India’s borders with Bangladesh, Myanmar and Bhutan highlights the porous nature of these borders, which pass through difficult terrain of forest, rivers and mountains and make the task of guarding all the more challenging. These borders provide easy points of ingress and egress. This has created problems like

  • Militant outfits in most of the North Eastern States and their ability to indulge in hit and run operations across borders.
  • Drugs, with their origin in Southeast Asian countries (Golden triangle), invariably find their way into the region from Myanmar, through states like Mizoram and Manipur.
  • Illegal immigration affecting demography of North Eastern states. Ex: Migrants issue in Assam.

The security situation in the North Eastern States also remained complex because of diverse demands of ethnic groups and various militant outfits. Ex: ULFA, NDFB – Assam, ATTF – Tripura.

  • There are often clashes between different groups disturbing peace and tranquillity in the region.
  • Limited success or failure of ethnic groups to secure autonomy have transformed them into insurgent groups transforming north eastern part into potent platform for waging war against nation state.

Central government has supplemented efforts of the State Governments for curbing the illegal and unlawful activities of militant/insurgent groups of North Eastern States through various measures

  • Banning the Unlawful Associations operating in NE Region under the Unlawful Activities.
  • Declaring areas/states as ‘disturbed areas’ and thus bringing them under AFSPA.
  • Central Government has been pursuing a policy of talks/negotiations with such groups which are ready to lay down arms and seek solutions for their problems peacefully within constitution of India. Ex: framework agreement with NSCN-IM.
  • Counter insurgency operations.


Since India’s international borders in the North East present mix of both friendly and unfriendly neighbours, a far greater effort needs to be put into the entire strategy of border management and security concerns.

Best answer: No best answer

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