4. What are various resource management strategies? Discuss.
विभिन्न संसाधन प्रबंधन रणनीतियों क्या हैं? चर्चा करें।
With increasing population pressure, climate change, development that is based on intensive use of resources, there is threat of resource scarcity in the world. In such scenario, resource management which aims at optimum utilization of resources keeping in mind needs of present and future generation assumes significance.
- Natural: Land, water, air, forests, wildlife, mineral resources.
- Human resource.
- Financial resource.
Following are few of the strategies employed in resource management.
- To Map available resources.
- Enhancing productivity of available agricultural land.
Ex: Green revolution- High Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds and chemical fertilizers.
- Judicious utilization of resources.
Ex: drip and sprinkler irrigation methods, precision farming.
- Diversify energy resources. Ex: solar energy, waste to energy.
- Food processing technology to minimize loss of agricultural produce.
- Today when construction of multipurpose dams is scientifically discredited, decentralized water conservation strategies are gaining currency.
- Focus on the development of MSME’s, which are well distributed throughout the country-decentralised approach to development.
- Social forestry through involvement of common people.
- Establishment of industries where raw materials are available. Ex: steel plants in Jharkhand. This would help to better channelize limited economic resources.
- Agro- climatic classification to ensure optimum return from agriculture. Ex: emphasis to grow fodder crops in arid regions.
- Conservation of ecosystems and wildlife through protected areas. Ex: Wildlife Protection Act, Biological Diversity Act.
- International efforts to protect environment. Ex: Various conventions of UN on climate change (UNFCC), biodiversity (UNCBD), MAB program and others.
- Conservation of soil through afforestation, organic farming.
(NOTE: you can also list conservation methods for various natural resources)
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle:
- Switching to need based lifestyle to avoid excess consumption of finite resources.
- Recycling and re-usage would also help.
- Regulating population growth. Ex: family planning programmes.
- Development of human capital by broadening access and opportunities in education, health and skills.
Thus, overall thrust of strategies is to conserve available resources; their efficient usage; finding alternatives and involving communities in their management so as to ensure sustainable development.
Best answer: Rahul