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Day 9 – Q 4.Examine the locational pattern of heavy industries in India. Take suitable examples.

4. Examine the locational pattern of heavy industries in India. Take suitable examples.  

भारत में भारी उद्योगों के स्थानीय पैटर्न की जांच करें। उपयुक्त उदाहरण लें।


Industries, which use heavy and bulky raw materials and produce products of the same category, are called heavy industries. Heavy industries include Oil, mining, shipbuilding, steel, chemicals, machinery manufacturing and others.

They are very capital-intensive and often sell their products to other industries rather than to end users and consumers.


Locational pattern of heavy industries in India are influenced by number of factors

Geographical: availability of raw materials, power resources, water, labour, markets and the transport facilities.

Non-Geographical: Government Policies, Industrial Inertia, presence of facilities like Banking and Insurance.


  1. a) Iron and steel industries:

The iron and steel industry uses large quantity of heavy and weight-losing raw materials, such as iron ore, coking coal and limestone. On the basis of the minimum cost of transportation, the steel plants can be located at three possible places, viz.,

  • Near the coalfields
  • Near iron-ore mining areas and
  • At places between coal and iron ore producing areas.

Taking these factors into account, most of the steel plants in India are located in Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. All these states are rich in coal and iron ore reserves. Ex: TISCO, Durgapur steel plant.

The other raw materials like manganese, limestone, dolomite, chromite, silica, scrap iron, are needed in small quantities and can be transported easily from other places.

  1. b) Ship building industry:

Availability of steel and coastal land play important role in the location of ship building industry. In India, Four major ship building centres are located at Vishakhapatnam, Kolkata, Kochi and Mumbai.

  • Vishakhapatnam itself has steel industry and Kolkata is well connected with steel industries of Jharkhand and WB.
  • flat/level coastal land is available.
  • Rich hinterland with excellent railroad connectivity for transport of labor and ancillary components
  • Indigenous demand from ONGC, for offshore platforms, drilling rigs and steel jackets and from Indian Navy and Coast guards.

c)Petrochemical industries: are located at coastal regions. Ports help in import of crude oil and export of end products.

  • Mumbai is the hub of the petrochemical industries.
  • Jamnagar, Gandhinagar and Hajira in Gujarat.


In most cases locational pattern of heavy industries depends on combination of above factors. With most factors varying in time and space, industries are unevenly distributed.

Best answer: NKY

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