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Day 27 – Q 1. Examine the factors that led to the spread of imperialism in Europe? What were its consequences?

1. Examine the factors that led to the spread of imperialism in Europe? What were its consequences?   

यूरोप में साम्राज्यवाद के प्रसार के कारण की जांच करें? इसके परिणाम क्या थे?


The takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people of that nation is called imperialism.


Factors leading to the spread of imperialism in Europe:

  • Industrial Revolution- It provided European countries with a need to add lands to their control. As European nations industrialized, they searched for new markets and raw materials to improve their economies.
  • Economic competition- Europeans viewed an empire as a measure of national greatness. As the competition for colonies intensified, each country was determined to plant its flag on as much of the world as possible.
  • Racism- Because of their advanced technology, many Europeans basically believed that they were better than other peoples.
  • Missionaries- Worked to Christianize the peoples of Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. Many missionaries believed that European rule was the best way to end evil practices such as the slave trade. They also wanted to “civilize,” that is, to “westernize,” the peoples of the foreign land.
  • Technological superiority- European countries acquired the automatic machine gun, while the colonies were forced to rely on outdated weapons. Also, invention of the steam engine, railroads and cables allowed close communications within a colony and between the colony and its controlling nation.
  • Internal factors- huge variety of languages and cultures within the colonies discouraged unity among them. Wars fought between ethnic groups or kingdoms also prevented a unified stand against Europeans.

Consequences of imperialism:


  • Development of modern economy- Laying of railroad networks, road networks, telephone and telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals enabled colonies to modernize.
  • Increased life spans and literacy- Humanitarian efforts in some colonies improved sanitation and brought hospitals and schools.
  • Economic expansion- African products came to be valued on the international market.
  • Reduced local warfare- British troops cleared central India of bandits and put an end to local warfare among competing local rulers.


  • Decline of locally owned industries- British held much of the political and economic power. British restricted locally-owned industries such as cotton textiles.
  • Loss of self-sufficiency- Emphasis on cash crops resulted in a loss of self-sufficiency for many villagers.
  • Famines- Conversion to cash crops reduced food production, causing famines in the late 1800s.
  • Disruption in traditional life- The increased presence of missionaries and the outspoken racist attitude of most British officials threatened Indian traditional life.
  • Colonial wars- Various Europeans would fight among themselves over ruling the colonies.
  • Division of African continent- The artificial boundaries that combined or unnaturally divided groups created problems that plagued African colonies during European occupation. These boundaries continue to create problems for the nations that evolved from the former colonies.


Imperialism changed the entire course of world history, and its impacts still have ramifications in the ongoing events in the world, like African tribal wars and Israel- Palestine conflict.

Best answer: Christina

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