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Day 41 – Q 4. Under what circumstances was the war of 1965 with Pakistan fought? How did it affect India? Discuss.

4. Under what circumstances was the war of 1965 with Pakistan fought? How did it affect India? Discuss.

1965 का युद्ध पाकिस्तान के साथ किन परिस्थितियों में लड़ा गया था? भारत पर इसका क्या प्रभाव पड़ा? चर्चा करें।


The 1965 war between India and Pakistan was the second conflict between the two countries over the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The clash did not resolve this dispute, but it did engage the United States and the Soviet Union in ways that would have important implications for subsequent superpower involvement in the region.


  • Issue of Kashmir- Since Partition, Kashmir problem has been central to the dispute between India and Pakistan.
  • Skirmishes over Rann of Kutch- Pakistan’s army’s performance during the limited conflict in the Rann of Kutch in April 1965 boosted its morale.
  • Image of a weak India- The Indian Army had lost badly to the Chinese in 1962, which created a sense of false superiority in the Pakistan army. Also, India was still in the process of modernizing its armed forces, which seemed like an opportune moment for Pakistan.
  • Other factors- Death of Nehru, India’s struggle with food crisis and support of China to Pakistan also influenced its strategy to challenge India.
  • Operation Gibraltar- Strategy of Pakistan to infiltrate Jammu and Kashmir, and start a rebellion against Indian rule.

The war was fought at two fronts and culminated in a ceasefire where India was believed to have an upper hand.

Effect on India:

  • Tashkent Declaration- It was a peace agreement signed between India and Pakistan to give effect to ceasefire.
  • Establishment of RAW- India established Research and Analysis Wing for external espionage and intelligence to avoid such incidents in future.
  • Enhanced tri-service co-ordination- India focused on enhancing communication and coordination within and among the tri-services of the Indian Armed Forces.
  • Modernization of army- Post war, India took it upon itself to re-organize its armed forces as well as modernize its weaponry, the effect of which can be clearly seen in the 1971 victory.
  • Changed foreign policy- United States and United Kingdom refused to supply India with sophisticated weaponry which strained the relations between the West and India. It distanced itself from Western powers and developed close relations with the Soviet Union.


The war could not resolve the Kashmir resolve, which continues till date and is a major factor behind strained Indi-Pakistan relations.

Best answer: John Nash

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