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Day 57 – Q 5. What are the principles, objectives and strategies of environmental impact assessment (EIA)?

5. What are the principles, objectives and strategies of environmental impact assessment (EIA)?

पर्यावरणीय प्रभाव मूल्यांकन (ईआईए) के सिद्धांत, उद्देश्य और रणनीति क्या हैं?


Environmental assessment is the assessment of the environmental consequences of a plan, policy, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. 



There are eight guiding principles that govern the entire EIA process: The principles of EIA:

  1. Participation – appropriate/timely access for interested parties
  2. Transparency – open and accessible assessment decisions
  3. Certainty – process/timing agreed in advance
  4. Accountability – decision makers responsible for their actions and decisions
  5. Credibility – undertaken with professionalism/objectivity
  6. Cost effectiveness – environmental protection at the least cost to society
  7. Flexibility – adaptable to deal efficiently with any proposal and decision situation
  8. Practicality – information/outputs readily usable in decision making and planning

Objective of EIA:

The objective of EIA is

  • to identify, predict and evaluate the economic, environmental and social impact of development activities
  • to provide information on the environmental consequences for decision making and
  • to promote environmentally sound and sustainable development through the identification of appropriate alternatives and mitigation measures.


  • Screening – is an SIA is required (eg, legislation, policies, requirements etc), what type of SIA is needed, when is it required.
  • Scoping – what is the aim of the PPP, are there any significant strategic issues, who are the stakeholders, what is the current state of the environment.
  • Impact assessment – identify all inputs into the SIA, constraints, project impacts, opportunities and trends, develop objectives, criteria and indicators.
  • Developing parameters, principles or guidelines – these are used to guide the SIA process and can include recommendations on addressing environmental or socio-economic impacts.
  • Comparing and evaluating alternative PPPs – preferred alternative/s selected, trade-offs made, public participation sought.
  • Decision-making – responsibilities and accountabilities assigned, SIA process is checked, final decision documented.
  • Monitoring and review – develop an implementation plan, begin monitoring and review of the project.
  • Implement the selected proposal.


Hence environment impact assessment is basically a feedback process to maintain social, economic and environmental sustainable development.

Best answer: Mudrarakshas

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