1. Science and Technology has always been an integral part of our culture. Comment.
The greatness of Indian culture can be gauged from the science and technological developments that took place as an integral part of it.
Ancient India was known for rich scientific contributions right from the use of zero, precise calculation of eclipses, concept of atom, to “ShushrutaSamhita” involving complex surgery and “Charak” explicitly describing diseases, their causes and modes of treatment.
Science and Technology as an integral part of our culture:
- From 8000 BC, the Mesolithic age began and continued upto 4000BC in India. During this time, sharp and pointed tools were used for killing fast-moving animals. The beginning of plant cultivation also appeared. So technology had already made an appearance on the Indian scene.
- During Indus Valley civilization, there was development of technologies like the plough, smelting of metals like copper and bronze, lost wax technique for casting, use of burnt bricks for construction, well laid drainage system, art of writing etc.
- In Vedic and later Vedic period:
- Yoga is Indian contribution by Maharishi Patanjali which is recognized world over for its benefits for health.
- Philosophy of Maharishi Kanad which advocated about the indivisibility of atom.
- Sulvasutras which mentioned about the scientific construction of altars through use of geometry.
- Charaka and Sushruta were the principal contributors to Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India.
- Gupta period and later ages:
- Contribution by Aryabhata in the field of mathematics and astronomy. He gave explanation of lunar eclipse and solar eclipse, rotation of Earth on its axis, reflection of light by moon, sinusoidal functions, solution of single variable quadratic equation, value of π correct to 4 decimal places, diameter of Earth.
- Varahamihira’s main work is the book Pancha-Siddhantika on mathematical astronomy.
- Brahmagupta was the first to give rules to compute with zero.
- Metallurgy reached its zenith during gupta era which is evident from rust free Mehrauli Iron pillar.
- Development of art and architecture shows the use of technology in construction of architectural marvels such as TajMahal, Astronomical observatory JantarMantarin Jaipur etc.
This spirit of development of scientific contributions was continued in post-independence era with the Indian Space and Research Organization’s (ISRO) success in Mars Orbiter Mission, Chandrayaan mission, India evolving as generic medicines hub, establishment of IITs etc.
This legacy of development of science and technology needs to be further taken forward because Science is the one and only medium that can provide solutions for the present and emerging problems in the years to come. Government has taken number of steps to encourage development of scientific temper through schemes such as AIM (Atal Innovation Mission), INSPIRE and revive the traditional Indian knowledge through schemes such as AYUSH mission.
Best answer: Ritik