Day 2 – Q 4.How did Gandhi’s arrival change the discourse of the nationalist movement? Did it make the movement more inclusive and representative? Critically comment.
4. How did Gandhi’s arrival change the discourse of the nationalist movement? Did it make the movement more inclusive and representative? Critically comment.
गांधी के आगमन ने राष्ट्रवादी आंदोलन के प्रवचन को कैसे बदल दिया? क्या इसने आंदोलन को अधिक समावेशी और प्रतिनिधि बना दिया? आलोचनात्मक टिप्पणी करें।
Gandhiji’s Role in the National Movement or Methods adopted by Mahatma Gandhi to make the Indian National Movement a mass movement. Gandhiji’s role in the National Movement of India was undoubtedly the most remarkable.
Change in discourse of national movement:
- Gandhi rejected violent nationalism.
- Gandhi used terms like swaraj, swadeshi, and Indian civilization instead of nation.
- Gandhi’s nationalism was based on satya, ahimsa, karmayoga, ramarajya, tapasya, and moksha etc.
- Class movements to mass movements: champaran satyagraha (1917), Kheda movement (1918), Khilafat movement (1919), non- cooperation movement (1920), civil-disobedience movement (1930), Quit India movement(1942) – these all were mass movements.
- Gandhiji boycotted foreign goods.
- Passive resistance and non-violence became motto.
- Love the enemies and voluntary surrendering to authorities became norm.
National movement was inclusive and representative:
- Women participation: thousands of women came out of their homes and participated in salt satyagraha.
- Working class and professionals participated: lawyers, teachers, professors also joined the national movement.
- Students also boycotted class and participated in the movement in large scale.
- All religion participated: irrespective of religion and caste all people took part in mass movement.
- Business class participated: gave financial assistance and rejected imported goods.
Some of the flaws in Gandhi’s ideology:
- Alliance with Muslim league on religious grounds during non-cooperation movement strengthened the Muslim league as an independent entity, though it brought leaders together but failed to bring Hindus and Muslims together.
- Support of Gandhiji to WW-I – British government didn’t do anything substantial instead brought Black act. Failure to commute death sentence of Bhagat singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru to Life imprisonment. Though cause of opposition to communal award was good but system of joint electorate didn’t let true representatives of depressed classes to lead.
Gandhi’ arrival was watershed in the national movement; it changed the discourse in significant way. It can be holistically said national movement was inclusive and representative as it covered whole India and its people