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Day 3 – Q 5.India has witnessed several terrorist attacks in the past. In what ways was the 26/11 terror attack on Mumbai different? Examine.

5. India has witnessed several terrorist attacks in the past. In what ways was the 26/11 terror attack on Mumbai different? Examine.

भारत ने अतीत में कई आतंकवादी हमले देखे हैं। मुंबई पर 26/11 के आतंकवादी हमले किस तरह से अलग थे? जांच करें।


Terrorism in India, according to the Home Ministry, poses a significant threat to the people of India. Terrorism found in India includes ethno-nationalist terrorism, religious terrorism, left wing terrorism and narco terrorism.


Some of the major terror attacks that have occurred in India are

  • Punjab killings of 1991
  • Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi – 1991
  • Parliament attacks – 2001
  • Mumbai attacks 2008
  • Pulwama attack 2019

India experienced a terrorist attack on its financial and entertainment capital Mumbai on 26 November 2008. It was different in a way that

  • Firstly the location the of the attack was Mumbai- which is one of the most densely populated cities in India, the financial capital of India, land to UNESCO Heritage sites and a major tourist attraction.
  • The sheer scale and audacity of the attacks clearly set them apart from earlier terrorist attacks in India.There were 12 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks which lasted four days, killing 164 and injuring several hundreds.
  • There were bombings in multiple locations instead of single location like, Chatrapathi shivaji terminus Leopold cafe

The Taj mahal hotel The Oberio trident

The Nariman House ( Jewish Community Centre)

  • Apart from targeting the civilians the attack was largely targeted towards international tourists visiting Mumbai which had a great impact affecting the tourism industry. Post 26/11 there has been a significant decline in the number of foreign tourists arriving in India.
  • The attack on Mumbai sea port which disrupted the trade of our country. It affected inwards and outwards of International cargoes. Imports and Exports had to be rerouted till the operations was complete.
  • Places like the Chatrapathi Shivaji terminus (UNESCO World Heritage Site ) and the Taj mahal hotel ( near gateway of India) were attacked which damaged the tangible cultural heritage of India.
  • Another notable impact was on the airline industry, since of the three routes of arrival, air is the most preferred route with over 92 per cent of foreign tourists choosing this route. Also the airspace closure affected several domestic and international flights.
  • There was a huge psychological impact which shook not only the entire nation but also the entire international community.

Following the 26/11 attack, a number of structural reforms were ambitiously proposed for the security set up.

Notably, the creation of regional hubs for National Security Guard deployment in various states, the establishment of the National Investigation Agency (NIA), the setting up of a National Intelligence Grid (NatGrid), and the plan for a National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC), along with several other initiatives, to enable a qualitative improvement in our counter-terror infrastructure and strategy.


The draft bill as recommended by the Law Commission of India which is a comprehensive and effective legal framework to deal with all aspects of terrorism needs to be enacted. A multipronged approach encompassing legal and administrative measures combined with good governance, inclusive development, a vigilant media and an alert citizenry can defeat terrorism in any form.

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