1. Examine the concept of poverty as a consequence of social exclusion.
सामाजिक बहिष्कार के परिणामस्वरूप गरीबी की अवधारणा की जांच करें।
Social exclusion is a complex and multi-dimensional process. It involves the lack of denial of resources, rights, goods and services, and the inability to participate in the normal relationships and activities, available to the majority of people in a society, whether in economic, social, cultural or political arenas. It affects both the quality of life of individuals and the equity and cohesion of society as a whole.
Social exclusion denies people the same rights and opportunities as afforded to others in their society, and that it causes poverty of particular people leading to higher rates of poverty among affected groups such as Dalits, minorities, tribes, transgender etc. Social Exclusion leads to Poverty in the following ways:
- Denial of or absence of resources, opportunities, or rights: which affects participation in society on equal terms with others, with at times, affected persons being in a situation where even basic needs for survival are denied or cannot be accessed.
- Political exclusion: leads to the low representation of a section of society in government offices and this leads to fewer policies in favour of that particular section which can benefit them in a better standard of living.
- Low Quality of life: Living in slum areas with low hygiene leads to poor health, and exclusion from access to better health services leads to the burden on pockets of poor, which ultimately end up pushing poor into more poverty.
- Exclusion from or denial of access to opportunities: This provides fewer employment opportunities which don’t let the poor come out of poverty.
- Deprived of Human rights: Exclusion imposes constraints under which human rights cannot be enjoyed in the same manner as by others in society. For example, basic rights like education and justice are denied, which further leads to poverty.
- Social inferiority: A feeling which is characterized by a sense of social inferiority in the community or a loss of social status.
The relationship between poverty and social exclusion is a reciprocal one. The process is cyclical with poverty being a cause of exclusion from participation which in turn leads to further poverty.
Despite India’s record of rapid economic growth and poverty reduction over recent decades, rising inequality in the country has been a subject of concern among policymakers, academics, and activists alike. These inequalities are more structural and have kept entire groups trapped, unable to take advantage of opportunities that economic growth offers.
For India to become a $5 Trillion economy and to achieve most of SDG by 2030, we need to be more inclusive of all sections of society.