Day 23 – Q 4.Urbanization is the inevitable outcome of the processes of growth and the processes of modernization. Elucidate.
4. Urbanization is the inevitable outcome of the processes of growth and the processes of modernization. Elucidate.
शहरीकरण विकास की प्रक्रियाओं और आधुनिकीकरण की प्रक्रियाओं का अपरिहार्य परिणाम है। स्पष्ट करें।
Urbanization is when people move from rural farmland to cities and towns. Urban areas are more densely packed and offer greater opportunities to the residents in the form of higher-paying jobs and a larger variety of job opportunities.
Urbanization is inevitable as a country’s production moves away from agriculture and towards industry. Industrialization has historically led to urbanization by creating economic growth and job opportunities that draw people to cities.
Urbanisation and Economic Growth:
- There are strong correlations between urbanisation and economic growth. Urbanisation could generate millions of jobs for the growing youth population.
- Productivity increases when rural farmers become urban factory workers, as has happened most spectacularly in China.
- Between 1978 and 2018, China’s urbanisation rate jumped up from 18% to 58%. In the process, over 500 million people were lifted out of poverty and the country attained middle-income status. India’s present level of urbanisation (34%) is far lower than China (58%) or even Indonesia (55%). Naturally, there is a huge scope for growth.
- A high degree of urban concentration is more important in the early stages of development. Because cities offer a range of ‘agglomeration benefits’ and this allows the economy to save on economic infrastructure and managerial resources, which may be in short supply
An Increase in Employment Possibilities:
- In developing countries, employment opportunities often open rapidly through the process of industrialization. Every developing country goes through a period of industrialization, where jobs move from agriculture to production. People begin to move to cities and towns more frequently, adding to the urbanization of that country.
- In urban areas, people have access to better schools, healthcare facilities, better living standards, and increased trade opportunities.
- Cities are more modern than rural environments, and people are attracted to fashion, food, and ideas flowing in the city.
Urbanization is a consequence of development and also the driving force for accelerating this development. Therefore, we need to start planning for the future. Building sustainable cities and finding ways to create more jobs is the best way ahead.