3. What are ‘problems without passport’? Explain with the help of suitable examples.
पासपोर्ट के बिना समस्याएं क्या हैं? उपयुक्त उदाहरणों की सहायता से समझाएँ।।
Passport is an official document issued by a government, certifying the holder’s identity and citizenship and entitling them to travel under its protection to and from foreign countries.
Problems without passport:
- Health epidemics: The current displacement of a record 60 million people world-wide by war and conflict, natural disasters and economic crises like the Global Financial Crisis.
Example: Smallpox, which killed hundreds of millions of people in the 20th century.
- Fire weather and extreme sea-level events: In Australia, the $5 billion Great Barrier Reef tourism industry has already felt the impacts of coral bleaching and increased frequency and severity of storms and cyclones.
- Mass movements of people: In the Pacific, all of the land area of the Marshall Islands and Tuvalu, and 97 percent of the land area of Kiribati, is less than five metres above sea level.
- Extreme weather conditions: In the broader Asian region, countries are experiencing declining food security, water shortages, increased prevalence and geographical reach of disease and more extreme weather events including floods and cyclones.
- Environmental threats: From pollution of our air to overfishing in the seas.
Example: Disputed land of South China Sea.
- Organized crime: Pollution, organized crime, and the proliferation of deadly weapons likewise show little regard for the niceties of borders; they are problems without passports and, as such, our common enemy.
Example: organized crime in Central America and the Caribbean
- Hate crime and racism: Incident/crime which is perceived by the victim or any other person to be motivated by a hostility or prejudice based on a person’s religion or perceived religion.
Example: Jews prosecution.
- In the name of religion: Prosecution in the name of religion and seeking asylum.
Example: Hajongs and Chakmas in Bangladesh
- Mass scale destruction: large-scale weaponry of other technologies, such as chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear warfare.
Example: Syria-Palestine issue.
No nation is immune; no nation can address such issues on its own; and no nation is exempt from risks without the benefits of international cooperation. The strong involvement of non-governmental organizations in the preparation of the Convention is a must to solve the problems.