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Day 34 – Q 5.What is the status of research, development and innovation in Indian universities. What suggestions would you give to improve the situation?

5. What is the status of research, development and innovation in Indian universities. What suggestions would you give to improve the situation? 

भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों में अनुसंधान, विकास और नवाचार की स्थिति क्या है। स्थिति को सुधारने के लिए आप क्या सुझाव देंगे?


India is spending stagnant of 0.6 to 0.7 in terms of percentages of GDP on research and development according to economic survey.  It suggested for doubling national expenditures on R&D. According to Times Higher Education (THE) Emerging Economies University Rankings, 49 institutions have made it to the list. Of these, 25 institutions have been included in the list of top 200 universities.

According to WIPO, India is the seventh largest patent filing office in the World.


Status of research and development in Indian universities:

  • India has no firms in five of the top ten R&D sectors as opposed to China that has a presence in each of them.
  • About three-fifths of government’s investment in R&D is spread over the key government science funding agencies like Atomic Energy, Space, Earth Sciences, Science and Technology and Biotechnology.
  • Government expenditure on R&D is undertaken almost entirely by the central government. 
  • The survey also pointed out that there has been an increase in the number of enrolments in Ph.D with 1.26 lakh students.
  • The gross expenditure on R&D (GERD) was mainly driven by the government sector with central government accounting for 45.1 %, state governments 7.4 %, public sector industries 5.5 % and institutions of higher education 3.9 %. The private industry accounted for the balance 38.1 %.
  • The public sector R&D was led by defence related industries and fuel industry, while the private sector R&D was dominated by drug and pharmaceuticals and transportation.
  • India topped the list with regard to the government’s participation in R&D but hit the bottom in terms of participation of institutions of higher education. 
  • Women’s participation in extra mural R&D projects has increased significantly from a mere 13 % in 2000-01 to 29 % in 2014-15.
  • Only 15 researchers per 100,000 people, putting India among the bottom five countries on this yardstick. Not only is the quantum of research poor, but also the quality of research.

Status of innovations in Indian universities:

  • India secured 52nd rank in global innovation index.
  • This list includes 127 countries ranked on parameters like infrastructure, market sophistication, business sophistication, institutions, and human capital and research.
  • Judging the innovative capacities of India is that many innovations of the informal sector go unnoticed.
  • India does not have a technology transfer legislation that would enable the transfer of know-how from university research labs to the private sector for commercialization.
  • Many of India’s innovations are not easily captured in indicators. Bangalore, for example, ranks at 65 among the top clusters in the world. Since the city’s innovation is based on software, it does not show up in patents and publishing.

Measures to improve situation:

  • To improve the quality of research institutes, for the promotion of technology business incubators (Atal Incubation Centres) and research parks that promote innovative ideas until they become commercial ventures.
  • Atal Tinkering Labs ensure that dedicated workspaces are created for students to innovate and develop ideas that will go on to transform India
  • Government procedures and approvals for scientists and researchers have been placed online and made transparent, thereby assuring “Ease of Doing Science”.
  • Unnat Bharat Abhiyan 2.0 to help bring transformational change in rural development processes by leveraging knowledge institutions to help build the architecture of an Inclusive India.
  • Ucchtar Avishkar Yojana (UAY), Ramanujan Fellowship Scheme, the Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) Faculty scheme and the Ramalingaswami Re-entry Fellowship, Visiting Advanced Joint Research Faculty Scheme (VAJRA), GIAN, can act as a catalyst in leveraging the scientific diaspora.
  • RUSA, RISE, IMPRINT and Institutions of eminence are some other steps taken by Central Government to enhance the quality and competitiveness of higher educational institutions.


Research and development, innovations are important at all stages of development; specifically, the creation and diffusion of technologies are important for economic growth and welfare across all economies.

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