1. What is Big Data? What are its applications? Discuss.
बिग डेटा क्या है? इसके अनुप्रयोग क्या हैं? चर्चा करें।
Big data is a term for data sets that are so large or complex that traditional data processing application software is inadequate to deal with them. It refers to the use of predictive analytics, user behaviour analytics, or certain other advanced data analytics methods that extract value from data.
- Big data can be analysed for targeted delivery if schemes, maintain a record of beneficiaries, analyse the response of the electorate to policies, predict future trends and demands of the population
- Patterns of investment, savings and expenditure can be revisited with changing time and government can instil such changes in its policies
- Geo-tagging in MGNREGA can help analyse the effectiveness of the policy geographically and bring in required changes
- The Digital India and Smart Cities initiatives of the government also include efforts to utilise data to design, plan, implement, manage, and govern programmes.
- Help to understand customers profile and needs, keep centralized data of sales, maintain the individual history of each customer and deliver customized services.
- Big data can provide insightful information about the unregulated sale of Antibiotics without prescription. The data generated can be used for developing statistical models to show the relationship between antibiotic consumption and associated resistance.
- Massive amounts of data generated by cities can be used to improve infrastructure and transport systems as Singapore has done.
- Seed Selection – Big-data businesses can analyse varieties of seeds across numerous fields, soil types, and climates and select the best.
- Weather – Advanced analytics capabilities and agri-robotics such as aerial imagery, sensors help provide sophisticated local weather forecasts can help increasing global agricultural productivity over the next few decades.
- Insurance: Crop-related ground data helps crop insurance companies for accurate assessment of risk and speedy settlement of claims.
Science and Technology:
- Research data can be captured at more depth and analysed in a better way. For example, data at Large Hadron Collider for atomic research. In future we are moving to the Internet of Things which will be based on machine-to-machine communication and each machine will have several Gigabytes if data about itself and others for simulating processes.
In social surveys also, now we can capture a larger sample of the population for evaluating trends and undercurrents. The use of information technology, open-source data, and proper governance will help in improving human development indices.
Big Data, Artificial Intelligence and Internet of things are going to change the world forever. Actively engaging policymakers and researchers is crucial to bring in cross-sectoral transformation.