Day 51 – Q 4.In climate negotiations, can India afford to stick around the erstwhile position that it took along with other developing nations? What are the constraints imposed upon India’s historical posturing on climate change by the changing dynamics of global politics? Analyse.
4. In climate negotiations, can India afford to stick around the erstwhile position that it took along with other developing nations? What are the constraints imposed upon India’s historical posturing on climate change by the changing dynamics of global politics? Analyse.
जलवायु वार्ताओं में, क्या भारत अन्य विकासशील राष्ट्रों के साथ होने वाली तत्कालीन स्थिति के इर्द-गिर्द टिक सकता है? वैश्विक राजनीति की बदलती गतिशीलता के द्वारा जलवायु परिवर्तन पर भारत के ऐतिहासिक पदावनति पर लगाए गए अवरोध क्या हैं? विश्लेषण करें।
For India and other G77 nations, the Kyoto Protocol emphasised the continued relevance of the firewall differentiation between developed and developing nations with respect to the burden of responsibility for climate action. India was able to successfully protect its space for socio-economic development while simultaneously pushing for developed countries to take on more responsibilities.
- As President Donald J. Trump withdrew the United States from the Paris climate agreement, elsewhere in the world other leaders clarified their commitment to the pact
- Asserting that India and China have “already grown” and it was unfair of them to take advantage of the “developing countries” tag by the World Trade Organisation (WTO) by USA.
India can stick around the erstwhile position along with developing nations:
- India is still backward: India also continues to remain a poor country by global standards with a third of the population below the poverty line.
- GDP per capita: In India in 2015 was roughly 1,600 USD per annum compared to 56,000 USD in the United States (World Bank 2016).
- Per capita emission: India’s per capita emissions are low at around a third of the global average, and average Indian electricity consumption per capita is roughly a quarter of the global average and stood at just 10 percent of that of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries.
- Huge population and area: Both for its sheer size and its position as an emerging economic power, India is an important aspect in climate action.
India cannot stick around the erstwhile position along with developing nations:
- Largest emitter: India is the world’s third largest emitter with rising emissions and therefore matters significantly to climate action.
- Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR): CBDR is based on relationship between industrialization and climate change. The more industrialized a country is, more likely that it has contributed to climate change. States came to an agreement that developed countries contributed more to environmental degradation and should have greater responsibility than developing countries.
- Responsible for climate changes: India had stated its goal to reduce its carbon intensity by some 35 percent by 2030, and had crafted an ambitious package focused on the rapid deployment of renewable energy—175 GW of renewable energy capacity—by the year 2022.
- Carbon emissions: International negotiating position had emphasized India’s developmental needs; it’s comparatively and historically low per capita emissions, and its desire to grow its economy before curbing carbon emissions.
Constraints imposed upon India on climate change:
- USA wants countries such as China and India to give up their ‘developing country’ status, given their rapid economic progress.
- USA ended duty-free preferential trade benefits for India — under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP).
- At COP 19 in Warsaw in 2013, the idea of Nationally Determined Commitments was first mooted and eventually led to the final version of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) which was adopted by countries in 2014 at COP 20 in Lima.
- India committed to installing clean energy capacity equivalent to 40 percent of the total installed electrical capacity in the country by 2030, pledged to reduce the carbon intensity of its economy by 33-35 percent by 2030.
India would do well to adopt a pro-active stance towards international climate negotiations. As a responsible member of the global community, India could offer to be part of an equitable solution based on common but differentiated responsibilities.