Day 9 – Q 5.The experience of the PRIs in different states of the country has not been the same. Illustrate with the help of suitable examples. Which are some of the better performing states? Examine.
5. The experience of the PRIs in different states of the country has not been the same. Illustrate with the help of suitable examples. Which are some of the better performing states? Examine.
देश के विभिन्न राज्यों में PRI का अनुभव समान नहीं रहा है। उपयुक्त उदाहरणों की सहायता से चित्रण करें। कुछ बेहतर प्रदर्शन करने वाले राज्य कौन से हैं? जांच करें।
Our Constitution provides a clear mandate for democratic decentralization not only through the Directive Principles of State Policy which exhorts the State to promote Panchayati Raj Institutions but more specifically now through the 73rd Amendments of the Constitution which seek to create an institutional framework for ushering in grass roots democracy through the medium of genuinely self-governing local bodies.
Experience of the PRIs is different States is not been the same because of the following Reasons
- Gram Sabha: The act provides for a Gram Sabha as the foundation of the panchayati raj system. However, It may exercise such powers and perform such functions at the village level as the legislature of a state determines.
- Example: In most of the states, each constituency of the members of the Gram Panchayat is called the Gram Sabha and all the voters of the same constituency are members of this body. However, in some states this is called Ward Sabha/Palli Sabha etc. In West Bengal it is called Gram Sansad (village parliament). Gram Sabha in West Bengal has a different meaning. Here all the voters of the Gram Panchayat as a whole constitute the Gram Sabha.
- Gram Sabhas hold meetings normally 2 to 4 times a year, but can meet as and when necessary. In some states dates of these meetings are fixed (Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat etc.) while in others dates are fixed by the Gram Panchayats.
- Three-Tier System: The act provides for a three-tier system of panchayati raj in every state, that is, panchayats at the village, intermediate, and district levels. However, a state having a population not exceeding 20 lakh may not constitute panchayats at the intermediate level.
Example: Arunachal Pradesh took away its Anchal Samiti, the intermediate level of the three-tier panchayati raj system, and set up a two-tier system in the state. Whereas Most of the States have 3 tier Panchayati Raj system.
- Reservation of Seats: Article 243D of the Constitution provides for the reservation of seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in every panchayat (i.e., at all the three levels) in proportion of their population to the total population in the panchayat area. The act also authorises the legislature of a state to make any provision for reservation of seats in any panchayat or offices of chairperson in the panchayat at any level in favour of backward classes.
Example: As per the Constitution (Eighty Third Amendment) Act 2000, the Article 243D relating to the reservation of seats in panchayats, is not applicable in Arunachal Pradesh. However, This provision is applicable in most of the States.
- Election of Members and Chairpersons: As per Article 243C of the Constitution all the members of panchayats at the village, intermediate and district levels shall be elected directly by the people. Further, the chairperson of panchayats at the intermediate and district levels shall be elected indirectly—by and from amongst the elected members thereof. However, the chairperson of a panchayat at the village level shall be elected in such manner as the state legislature determines.
- Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA): extends Part IX of the Constitution to the areas listed under the Fifth Schedule subject to certain exceptions and modifications. A major function of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj is to oversee the implementation of the provisions of PESA by the nine States, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan that have the areas listed in the Fifth Schedule. The PESA Act enjoins the State governments to endow Gram Sabhas and Panchayats at the appropriate level with the power to enforce prohibition, ownership of minor forest produce, power to prevent alienation of land and restore unlawfully alienated land, power to manage village markets, power to exercise control over money lending, power to exercise control over institutions and functionaries in all social sectors and power to control local plans and resources for such plans including tribal sub-plans. The Act prohibits Panchayats at the higher level to assume the powers and authority of any Panchayat at the lower level.
- As per Article 243M of the Constitution, State of Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sixth Schedule Areas and hill areas of Manipur are exempted from application of Part IX of the Constitution.
Some of the better performing States.
Ministry of Panchayati Raj during the National Panchayat Raj Day event, awards were given to the best performing Panchayats.
- Deen Dayal Upadhyay Panchayat Sashaktikaran Puraskar (DDUPSP) are given to best performing Panchayats across the States/UTs in recognition of the good work that is done by PRIs at each level for improving delivery of services and public goods.
Some Best Performing States: Kerala, Karnataka, Gujarat, Assam, Andra Pradesh, Jharkhand
- Nanaji Deshmukh Rashtriya Gaurav Gram Sabha Puraskar (NDRGGSP) are given to Gram Panchayats only for their outstanding contribution to the socio-economic development by involving Gram Sabhas.
Better Performing States: Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Sikkim, Tamilnadu
- Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP) Award: This award to be conferred upon three best performing Gram Panchayats across the country. This has been done with a view to encourage the GPs which have developed their GPDPs according to the State/UT specific guidelines prepared in line with the models guidelines issued by MoPR.
Better Performing States: West Bengal, Karnataka and Sikkim
- E-Panchayat Puraskar This award is given to Panchayats who efficiently and effectively use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to build a “digital inclusive society” where large sections of rural population are able to benefit from new technologies.
Better Performing States: Sikkim, Odisha, Maharashtra, Telangana, Tripura and Karnataka.
Though there are inevitable variations from state to another state in regard to its, details including structure, number of tiers, location of authority, length of tenure, etc. the Panchayati Raj institutions today are functioning in all the states to deliver service and benefits to large sections of rural population.