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Day 41 – Q 4.What are the most dominant unifying factors that have knit India together despite her tremendous social diversity? Examine.

4. What are the most dominant unifying factors that have knit India together despite her tremendous social diversity? Examine. 

जबरदस्त सामाजिक विविधता के बावजूद भारत को एक साथ जोड़ने वाले सबसे प्रमुख एकीकृत कारक कौन से हैं? जांच करें।


In diversity there is beauty and there is strength – Maya Angelou

India is a land of “Unity in diversity”. The high mountain ranges, vast seas , large river-irrigated lands, countless rivers and streams, dark forests, sandy deserts, all these have adorned India with an exceptional diversity. Among the people there are numerous races, castes, creeds, religions and languages. But with all these diversities we live together as there is a fundamental unity among us.


There are many factors that are contributing for the unification of India, but the most dominant are

  1. Geographical factor: India has its own fixed natural boundary, At broadest level, the country can be divided into several regions viz. Himalaya, northern plains,plateau of central India and Deccan, Western & Eastern Ghats, Thar Desert etc. Despite of this diversity, India has been defined as a distinct geographical unit since ages. A sloka in Vishnu Purana defines Bharata as the land which is south of snowy mountains and north of ocean.
  2. Religious factor: There has been an under-current of religious unity among the various religious sects in the country. India has multitude of religions including majority Hinduism and minority Islam, Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Bahá’í Faith and so on. All these religions have some common principles like principles of benevolence, honesty, faith in an invisible power, value of life etc. The concept of ‘One in Many’ and of universal morality as essence of religion has provided the essence of religious unity.
  3. Cultural factor: The Cultural unity in diversity of India is generally denoted with the phrase “Ganga-Jamuni Tahjeeb” or India’s composite culture. Despite of diversity, there are numerous cultural elements and factors that have shaped India’s composite culture. There has been a basic unity of literary ideas, philosophy, conventions and outlook of the people throughout the country. there has been close socio-cultural cooperation among the followers of different creeds and communities. The composite culture of India is a living example of her fundamental cultural unity.
  4. Linguistic factor: Side by side with this linguistic variety operates the unifying influence of Sanskrit, the mother of most of the Indian Languages. Sanskrit has been acknowledged as the one sacred language by all sections of the people irrespective of their race, rank or creed. Most of the Indian Languages have been influenced by Sanskrit, which may be regarded as a ‘Mother Language’ of India. English emerged as lingua franca of the country and serves as medium of communication between two people who have different mother tongue.
  5. Political factor: The rulers of India tried to establish their way over the whole country and fostered its unity. The term ‘Ekrat’ is more significant as applying to the “Kins Ruling over the whole country”. The geographical conception of the identity and individuality of the country in all its vastness and variety led to the attainment of its political unification under various sovereigns. After independence, India adopted democratic system of politics which demands political unification at all its levels.
  6. Racial factor: India has a great power of fusion and assimilation. From the earliest time India has invaded by different races such as Aryans, Shaks, Huns etc. But with the passage of time they have merged completely with the local population and culture. Innumerable number of tribes and races coming to India were all absorbed in the broad cultural mainstream of the country. Racial diversity gave a variety to Indian culture, which is its unique feature.
  7. Spirit of Nationalism: There is an emotional bond of patriotism in India that binds all the members of the nation. The very word Bharat Varsha binds all Indians and emotionally they become closer to one another. They can also sacrifice their lives to protect India from any forign power.


“Unity in Diversity” this phrase transcends the notion accommodation without assimilation which has been the key feature of Indian civilization. The diversity in terms of race, religion, Language, caste and culture has made India is a strong nation tied together with integration and unity in both politico-geographic and cultural backgrounds.

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