Day 43 – Q 2.In the present era of machine learning and artificial intelligence, it is not sustainable to have a huge population. Do you agree? In this light, examine the imperatives to have a stringent population control policy to address the problem of poverty and unemployment.
2. In the present era of machine learning and artificial intelligence, it is not sustainable to have a huge population. Do you agree? In this light, examine the imperatives to have a stringent population control policy to address the problem of poverty and unemployment.
मशीन लर्निंग और आर्टिफिशियल इंटेलिजेंस के वर्तमान युग में, एक बड़ी आबादी का होना सही नहीं है। क्या आप सहमत हैं? इस प्रकाश में, गरीबी और बेरोजगारी की समस्या को दूर करने के लिए कठोर जनसंख्या नियंत्रण नीति के लिए अनिवार्यताओं की जांच करें।
Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. And, Machine Learning is a current application of AI based around the idea that we should really just be able to give machines access to data and let them learn for themselves.
Why in the era of machine learning and artificial intelligence, it is not sustainable to have a huge population?
- In the short term, there is a threat being posed to many job markets in the form of automation, and for many automation problems.
- The demand for skills linked to home appliance repair, for example, is shrinking quickly because technology is driving down the price of appliances and improving reliability.
- Mobileye of Israel is developing driverless vehicle navigation units.
- Baidu, the Chinese technology giant, is working with King Long Motor Group, China, to introduce autonomous buses in industrial parks.
- Sberbank, the largest bank in the Russian Federation, relies on artificial intelligence to make 35 percent of its loan decisions, and it anticipates raising that rate to 70 percent in less than five years. “Robot lawyers” have already replaced 3,000 human employees in Sberbank’s legal department. The number of back-office employees will shrink to 1,000 by 2021, down from 59,000 in 2011.
- Ant Financial, a fintech firm in China, uses big data to assess loan agreements instead of hiring thousands of loan officers or lawyers.
Why in the era of machine learning and artificial intelligence, huge population can be better sustained?
- There is nothing artificial about intelligence and unlike industrial automation that is actually taking away jobs globally, AI is only going to supplement human intelligence across the spectrum — from banking to media.
- AI consists of software tools aimed at solving problems.
- ML is absolutely not about replacing humans but enhancing the experiences, as per Olivier Klein, Head of Emerging Technologies, Asia-Pacific at Amazon Web Services (AWS).
- Machines are not here to take decisions on their own and certain human emotions — empathy, for instance – can never be automated.
- Artificial Intelligence can expedite achievement of the SDG’s. For example Population Foundation of India is carrying out a project in North India using AI to give adolescents access to sexual and reproductive health information.
Imperatives to have a stringent population control policy to address the problem of poverty and unemployment
- As per the East Asia Forum report, in 2050, India’s population is projected to be 1.69 billion which will be higher than that of China.
- The demand for food will double in the year 2050 and even if India manages to feed its expanding population, its growth may not be ecologically sustainable.
- Small family is good for the society and nation. It’s high time the nation debates this and brings a law if needed. Else we will soon run out of resources.
There is no imperatives to have a stringent population control policy to address the problem of poverty and unemployment
- The number of Indian women, wanting to have another baby is falling fast, as per National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16). Only 24% of the married women between 15 and 49 years want a second child. For men, the corresponding proportion is 27%, down from 49% a decade ago.
- Based on the National Family Health Surveys (1 to 4), it is estimated that in 2018, around 430 million people out of 135 million in India were a result of unplanned pregnancies. The consequences of such pregnancies are being reflected in widespread malnutrition, poor health, low quality of education, and increasing scarcity of basic resources like food, water and space.
- Incidents of unplanned pregnancies can be dramatically reduced, if not eliminated, within the next five years by simply providing reproductive services as per the needs of clients, as had been done in Andhra Pradesh during the nineties. If Andhra—with little outside help—could manage its population growth under relatively low literacy and high poverty (Literacy Rate of A.P. in 2011 was 67.7% compared to 67.1% in Rajasthan, as per 2011 Census), there is no reason why other states, especially, Four Large North Indian (FLNI) States of Bihar, MP, Rajasthan and U.P.—with lesser problems and increasingly generous support from the centre—should fail so spectacularly in managing unwanted fertility.
- Reducing incidences of unplanned pregnancies will help in achieving the national goal of population stabilization at the earliest.
There is no need to implement coercive measures like a one-child norm or to provide incentives and disincentives, through a stringent population control policy The real need is to provide services in un-served and underserved areas by realigning the capacity of the health system to deliver quality care to suit the needs of clients.