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Day 45 – Q 3.With increasing instances of city crimes that include rape, murder, theft, robbery etc, there is a need to create a robust, effective and integrated security ecosystem for urban India. Elucidate.

3. With increasing instances of city crimes that include rape, murder, theft, robbery etc, there is a need to create a robust, effective and integrated security ecosystem for urban India. Elucidate. 

शहर के अपराधों के बढ़ते मामलों के साथ जिसमें बलात्कार, हत्या, चोरी, डकैती आदि शामिल हैं, शहरी भारत के लिए एक मजबूत, प्रभावी और एकीकृत सुरक्षा पारिस्थितिकी तंत्र बनाने की आवश्यकता है। स्पष्ट करें।


In October 2019, India’s National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) released crime statistics for the year 2017. The NCRB has provided crime rates in terms of crime per lakh population where Delhi witnessed the highest crime rate in the country with 1,050 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crime incidents per lakh of the city’s population, which clearly showcases the extent of city crimes prevalent in India.


  • Social changes affect the concept of crime in many ways, one of which can be through transition from a rural self-contained and relatively sparsely populated to highly urbanized, industrialized pattern.
  • The NCRB further reports that in terms of fatal attacks that have resulted in deaths, Patna tops the list, with a crime rate of nine murders per lakh population. It is followed by Nagpur (eight), Indore, Jaipur and Bengaluru (three each). The lowest crime rates for murder are reported from Kozhikode, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Hyderabad – all clocking below one murder per lakh population. 
  • It is generally acknowledged that cities have a greater propensity to crime and that megacities have a higher crime rate than smaller cities.The reasons assigned to this phenomenon of more crime in cities are: 
    1. Greater access to wealth. 
    2. Greater anonymity on account of large-size-cum-high-density and hence lower probability of arrest and 
    3. The larger urban ability to attract crime-prone individuals.
  • Crime is primarily the outcome of multiple adverse social, economic, cultural and family conditions. To prevent crime, it is important to have an understanding of its roots. Social root causes of crime are:
    1. Inequality and not sharing power.
    2. Lack of support to families and neighborhoods.
    3. Real or perceived inaccessibility to services. 
    4. Lack of leadership in communities. 
    5. Low value placed on children and individual well-being and overexposure to television as a means of recreation.

In light of these factors and reports of crime in Indian cities, there is a need for robust, effective and integrated security ecosystem for urban India which addresses the deficiencies of current system and ensures a secure urban space for citizens. This can be achieved through the following measures:

  • The recently announced umbrella scheme on “Modernisation of Police Forces” to strengthen law and order and modernize the police is a welcome stimulus. A part of police reform is intrinsically linked to legal/judicial reform, which would result in efficient criminal justice dispensation. 
  • Create a law-abiding society – It is necessary to inculcate respect for the rule of law among citizens. The process should start at the school level and can be effected by mandatorily introducing innovative programmes with well thought out content and activities. 
  • Greater sensitivity on the part of government officials to citizens’ needs can help reduce the number of litigations/disputes. This will require an attitudinal reorientation among government officials through sensitization programmes. Future prospects of employees can be made contingent on their successfully completing such programmes.
  • Launch a common nation-wide emergency contact number to attend to emergency security needs of citizens. Legal and judicial reforms to address the massive pendency and capacity issues in Indian courts, which impede access to justice. Several archaic and defunct laws have already been repealed and many others are in the process of being weeded out.
  • Strengthening finances of ULB’s and civic agencies – Cities require a financial sustainability roadmap to be financially self-sufficient to support high-quality security infrastructure and the delivery of services.
  • There is a strong link between reducing risk and building resilience in children and decreasing crime. As a result, the provision of appropriate care and required resources to all children will have great significance for their long term physical, intellectual, and emotional well-being and their development into independent, healthy adults.
  • Citizen participation – Enhanced citizen participation is needed for greater trust between citizens and governments, improved sustainability, better security service delivery and accountability. Ward committees and area sabhas should be activated with a technology enabled ‘Open Cities Framework’ and the use of digital tools for security feedback and crime reporting. 
  • Further, following measures will help in addressing the city crimes – 
    1. Collaboration between government, media and public
    2. Increasing the capabilities of security force
    3. Institutionalising swift decision-making
    4. Building the overall resilience of cities


Establishing the causality of crime in relation to the nature of its settlements is a complex issue. India is still in the midst of urbanization, hence this is a subject worthy of deep and wide investigation. The results may light up the path of India’s choices with regard to the pattern of growth for its cities and towns and the security systems in place for it.

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