2. What were the ideas of Confucius on morality and human character? Discuss.
नैतिकता और मानवीय चरित्र पर कन्फ्यूशियस के विचार क्या थे? चर्चा करें।
“What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others.”
The quote summarizes the entire Confucious philosophy which calls for egalitarian and just treatment of human beings which is the basis of human character and morality.
Confucian moral education aims at a noble person who is characterized by superiority of mind, character, ideals or morals. Confucius insisted chiefly on the four virtues of sincerity, benevolence, filial piety and righteousness.
Ideas of Confucious:
Confucious gave 5 principles to adapt in life to develop a noble character and live with morality.
- Ren: compassion, or simply goodness which makes us human. It includes loyalty, Benevolence are virtues which should be inculcated in children by governments, parents and teachers.
- Li: these are the good manners to be adopted in life carving a virtuous human character.
- Shu: it is the principle of reciprocity which is the social obligations to the family, work and the society. The actions are moral only as long as they don’t affect or cause untoward harm to others.
- Xiao: concept of filial conduct. This is the root of all relationships in Confucianism creating at once the good child or parent as well as the good citizen and the virtuous man.
- Wen: refers to the arts of the sage. These include music, poetry and art. Confucius felt that these were arts of peace and were symbolic of true virtue. These develop human character.
Human character must have ever-lasting perseverance for standing up and doing the right things. One must have belief in self to be successful. Confucious observed
“Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.”
“It does not matter how slowly you go so long as you do not stop.”
Confucious emphasized the role of family and social harmony than on just spiritual values which made Confucianism humanistic. He relied on wisdom and knowledge which would shape human character and make the actions of human moral. He observed
“Wisdom, compassion, and courage are the three universally recognized moral qualities of men.”
Confucius was deeply involved in thinking about the concepts of human compassion and the development of a character. His ideas are true even today and can be applied in ethical judgement of an action. The Confucious teachings can be summarized into social and political philosophy with emphasis on education, social harmony which develops individual character.
NOTE: write 4-5 quotes of moral thinkers which summarize their philosophy (around 20 moral thinkers) and revise them frequently.
“Wisdom, compassion, and courage are the three universally recognized moral qualities of men.” (humanity/Virtue ethics).
“What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others.” (reciprocity and morality).
“Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.” (perseverance).
“If we don’t know life, how can we know death?”(focus on present than on afterlife).
“Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it” (Virtue ethics).