Day 71 – Q 5.Why should conserving biodiversity be a priority? What globe efforts have been started to reduce biodiversity loss? Examine. What role is India playing in this front? Discuss.
5. Why should conserving biodiversity be a priority? What globe efforts have been started to reduce biodiversity loss? Examine. What role is India playing in this front? Discuss.
जैव विविधता का संरक्षण प्राथमिकता क्यों होनी चाहिए? जैव विविधता हानि को कम करने के लिए कौन से विश्व प्रयास शुरू किए गए हैं? जांच करें। भारत इस मोर्चे में क्या भूमिका निभा रहा है? चर्चा करें।
Biodiversity refers to all the varieties of life that can be found on Earth (plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms) as well as to the communities that they form and the habitats in which they live.
In recent times there has been huge loss to the biodiversity
Living planet report of WWF
- 60% of biodiversity declined from 1970 to 2014.
- 80% fresh water vertebrates.
- 50% bleached coral reefs.
- Only ~ 25% of land is substantively free of impact of human activity.
Eg – 20% of Amazon rain forest has disappeared in last 5 decades.
Conserving biodiversity should be a priority
Biodiversity as resource
- Agriculture – crucially dependent on pollinators population
- Blue economy – based on aquatic biodiversity
- Pink revolution – for food & nutritional security and exports.
- Non-major forest resource – livelihood for forest dwellers and some tribal population.
- Industry – furniture etc
- Eco – tourism – eg- Kerala economy
- Pollution mitigation
Global efforts to reduce biodiversity loss
- Convention on Biological Diversity – signed during the Earth Summit in 1992. It focuses not only on conserving biodiversity but also on sustainable use of biological resources and equitable sharing of benefits arising from its use.
- The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) – an international treaty which is designed to protect wild plants and animals affected by international trade.
- Ramsar Convention – It provides a framework for international cooperation for the conservation of wetland habitats.
- Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals – or the Bonn Convention aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range.
- The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture – the objectives are the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use, in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, for sustainable agriculture and food security.
- International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) – aims to protect world plant resources, including cultivated and wild plants. The convention provides the mechanisms to develop the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs), and to help countries to implement the ISPMs.
- Basel Convention – It is designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs).
Role is India playing in this front
India currently spends about $2 billion per year on biodiversity conservation efforts
- Wildlife Protection act 1972
- Biological diversity act
- Forest conservation act 1980
- National Green Tribunal
- Wildlife Crime Control Bureau
- National Tiger Conservation Authority
- Laboratory for conservation of endangered species.
- Banned diclofenac drug that were killing vultures
- Biodiversity governance
- ~47, 000 crore funding under CAMPA to states for forest conservation.
- Hati mere Saathi
- Green budgeting
- Judicial activism
- Dehradun quarrying case (1998) recognised right to live in healthy environment as part of art 21.
- MC Mehta case – right to live in pollution free environment is par to life.
- Vellore citizens welfare forum case – polluters pay principle are essential for sustainable development
Uttarakhand High Court declared River Ganga and Yamuna as living entity.
WWF Called international treaty on the line of Paris Agreement to protect wildlife. Greater range of targets under CBD has been suggested. These measures must be adopted urgently to preserves biodiversity, which has been described as the ‘infrastructure’ that supports all life on earth.