Day 82 – Q 3.Examine the changes in the distribution pattern of cotton textile industry in India. Also, discuss the factors leading to such changes.
3. Examine the changes in the distribution pattern of cotton textile industry in India. Also, discuss the factors leading to such changes.
भारत में सूती वस्त्र उद्योग के वितरण पैटर्न में बदलाव की जांच करें। इसके अलावा, ऐसे परिवर्तनों के लिए अग्रणी कारकों पर चर्चा करें।
Cotton textile industry is largest organised modem industry of India. There has been a phenomenal growth of this industry during the last four decades. About 16 per cent of the industrial capital and over 20 per cent of the industrial labour of the country is engaged in this industry.
Initially they used to be dependent on sources of supply of raw material, but with the progress in science and technology, there are frequent changes in factors, on which location of the industries depends.
Initially cotton textile industry developed in certain major centres such as Mumbai, Surat etc which had all the factors that are responsible for location of textile industries. Factors responsible were easy transportation, cheap labour, closer to market etc.
Decentralization of cotton textile industry and factors responsible
- Dispersal of industry from the old nuclei started after 1921 with railway lines penetrating into the peninsular region. New centres like Coimbatore, Madurai, Bangalore, Nagpur, Indore, Solapur and Vadodara were favourably located in respect to raw material, market and labour than places of original locations.
- This industry also reached some places with some additional advantages, such as nearness to coal (Nagpur), financial facilities (Kanpur) and wide market with port facilities (Kolkata);
- Dispersal of cotton textile industry was further boosted with the development of hydroelectricity.
- The growth of this industry in Coimbatore, Madurai and Tirunelveli is largely due to the availability of hydroelectricity from Pykara dam.
- The industry also tended to shift from areas of high labour cost to those with low labour cost.
- The labour cost factor played a crucial role in establishing this industry at Madurai, Tirunelveli, and Coimbatore etc.
Several cotton textile mills have closed down. This is primarily due to the emergence of new textile centres in the country as well as non- upgradation of machines and technology in the mills of Ahmedabad.