3. How do immigration policies of developed countries affect India’s interests?
विकसित देशों की आव्रजन नीतियां भारत के हितों को कैसे प्रभावित करती हैं?
Immigration is coming to a foreign country with the intention of permanently living there whereas Emigration is leaving a resident country with the intent to settle elsewhere. Immigrants generally take up that job which people in the host country (the country to which people have fled) will not or cannot do.
Migrant workers often work longer hours and for lower salaries which benefits host nations. Immigrants contribute to the diversity of the host country and thus also increase tolerance and understanding in the society.
Some immigration policies of developed countries
- European Union
- Divergent national approaches to accepting Asylum Seekers.
- Using EU budgets to support refugee integration.
- Strengthening external borders.
- Collaborating with third countries to cut off transit routes.
- Tying Foreign Assistance to stemming migration
- Hungary has restricted illegal immigration by suspending the acceptance of asylum seekers sent back to it by other EU states.
- U.S. has also made some changes in its Immigration policy.
- Italy has called for detention and deportation of migrants, who it blames for the instability and threats in the country.
- Dutch has adopted a zero tolerance approach towards those immigrants who are unwilling to sign up to the country’s way of life.
As per UN report, India is leading country of origin of international migrants with a 17.5 million strong diaspora.
Effect of immigration policies of developed countries on India
- Recent merit-based immigration system of US — one that admits people who are skilled – has been welcomed by Indian professionals.
- Remittances of India hit adversely. Ex: Kerala remittance was nearly 40% of their GDP in 2011-2014 but after that there was sharp decline in remittances.
- It will increase unemployment as people who are not getting jobs overseas needs job in India.
- When it comes to the IT industry, due to immigration polices like H-1B Visa of U.S, initially the Indian companies will be pressurized to hire Indian talent, but eventually, it will help in overall growth.
- Due to strict immigration policies of west India can attract more talent. Make in India program can get thrust due to this.
Immigration policies of developed countries poses challenges in short term. However with skill development and New Industrial Policy India can gain advantage out of the situation.