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Day 91 – Q 4. The China-Pakistan axis is a geo-strategic and security headache for India. Do you agree? Substantiate.

4. The China-Pakistan axis is a geo-strategic and security headache for India. Do you agree? Substantiate.     

चीनपाकिस्तान धुरी भारत के लिए एक भूरणनीतिक और सुरक्षा सिरदर्द है। क्या आप सहमत हैं? पुष्टी करें।


The navies of China and Pakistan held their sixth bilateral naval exercise, titled Sea Guardians-2020, in the northern Arabian Sea. Such military exercises are expected to strengthen security cooperation between the two countries, who are already “iron brothers.” The growing bonhomie between China-Pakistan is beyond symbolism require India to adopt more vigilant and cautious approach. 


The China-Pakistan axis has many underlying principles explained by Samuel Huntington as sinic-islamist alliance of power and culture along with traditional anti-India synergies.

Challenges posed by China-Pakistan axis at geostrategic horizon:

  • China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: China is using Indian land area illegally occupied by Pakistan violating sovereignty of India. Though China always maintained Jammu and Kashmir is a bilateral issue, India has concerns over the internationalization of the Kashmir issue, reflected in criticism of removal of article 370. 
  • String of Pearls: Gwadar port of Pakistan can become outpost for PLA navy eventually along with massive port development surrounding India in Sri-Lanka, Bangladesh. Growing influence of China in the Indian Ocean major cause of worry for India.
  • Afghanistan Peace process: China and Pakistan working in close cooperation to bring Taliban to table and exclude India from the political solution in Afghanistan, which will undermine Indian efforts, infrastructure and investments in Afghanistan. 
  • Threats to Indian interests overseas: China consistently blocking India’s membership in Nuclear Supplier Group at the haste of Pakistan, first time ‘informal consultations’ on India-Pakistan dispute after 1971 due to Chinese initiative. 

Security headache:

  • Nuclear terrorism: China and Pakistan being nuclear states on the northern and western border make India country with one of the most hostile neighbours with Pakistan, India has unresolved Kashmir issue and with China India do not have mutually agreed boundary settlement. It necessities India to develop resilient security apparatus. 
  • Proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh and Punjab: Pakistan has continuously tried to destabilize India internally, with support to separatists.   
  • Moral support and Training to North-east militancy groups and Left wing extremism: China in the post provided safe havens, arms and training to northeast militant groups and moral support to left wing extremism. 
  • Radicalization and Fundamentalism: Pakistan has been the center of Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism of the world. It has indulged in many terror attacks on Indian cities and China supported Pakistan in UN repeatedly reflected in repeated technical hold to designate JeM head Massod Azhar as terrorist who eventually declared so with consistent diplomatic efforts.

Indian response to China-Pakistan Axis:

  • India has taken strong action against both China and Pakistan in the recent past with border stand-off with China in dock-lam and surgical strike and air strike in Pakistan.
  • India refused to participate in Belt and Road Initiative of China becoming the only major economy. 
  • India increased Strategic relationship with US reflected in the development of Quad to counter China. 
  • India’s proactive diplomacy in West Asia has dented support to Pakistan from Islamic world.

However, India has experienced the similar challenge in the US-Pakistan axis for more than five decade which eventually became blur with the consistent efforts of Indian diplomacy, economic might and changing global order. 


India cannot have idealistic view of China as if the economic interest in India will dominate the geostrategic and security ambitions vis-e-vis relationship with India. Indian approach should be to develop more deep relationship with China to make Pakistan more responsible state and at the same time focus on building economic power and strategic alliances across the globe to increase deterrence.  

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