Day 26 – Q 1.The very notion of the relationship between Ruler and State changed as a result of Enlightenment. Do you agree? Critically analyse.
1. The very notion of the relationship between Ruler and State changed as a result of Enlightenment. Do you agree? Critically analyse.
प्रबुद्धता के परिणामस्वरूप शासक और राज्य के बीच संबंधों की धारणा बदल गई। क्या आप सहमत हैं? समालोचनात्मक विश्लेषण करें।
Scientific evolution in Europe also gave rise to intellectual awakening which changed the relationship between the ruler and the ruled. That enlightenment is the reason for freedom which we are enjoying today.
Many types of theories emerged and people gave ideas of new type of relationship between Ruler and state which started primarily in England and spread to neighborhood.
- Divine right: It put an end to divine right theory and consent rule emerged.
- Separation of powers: Montesquieu, believed in separation of powers and giving limited power to Ruler i.e. executive power in hands of ruler and his ministers, judicial powers with judges.
- Church: The Union between church and state was questioned and tolerance for all religion was started.
- Aristocracy: All positions in state were opened to all classes.
- Rule of Law: Even ruler had to abide by laws.
It also sometimes led to negative consequences:
- Absolute Monarchy: Theory of social contract, where people surrendered their freedom for law and order.
- Dictatorship: French under Napoleon after abolition of Monarchy.
- Anarchy: leading to no authority and disorder.
- State non-interference: It gave rise to concept of Liberalism which led to state non-interference in social and economic life of people. This resulted in Impoverishment of majority of people which can also be cited as reason for great Economic Depression in 1930’s.
The Enlightenment is the reason for the democracy, liberty and freedom that we all have today. Absolute authority corrupts and no authority creates disorder. There should be balance of both for peaceful society.
Best Answer: Aspirant123