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Day 52 – Q 2.Does the composition and rights in the Security Council represent 21st century world dynamics? Critically examine.

2. Does the composition and rights in the Security Council represent 21st century world dynamics? Critically examine.

क्या सुरक्षा परिषद में संरचना और अधिकार 21 वीं शताब्दी की विश्व गतिशीलता का प्रतिनिधित्व करते हैं? समालोचनात्मक जांच करें।


United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. The founding aim of UNSC has somehow being diluted and the lust of power has diluted its credentials, losing its vision and making it a powerhouse of few selected elite countries.


The United Nations Security Council (UNSC), which was created after the second world war to address the failings of a previous international organization, the League of Nations, in maintaining world peace is however, considered to be one of the most powerful organization even today due to the following rights-

  • The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression.
  • It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement.
  • In some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security.
  • The Security Council also recommends to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and the admission of new Members to the United Nations. 
  • And, together with the General Assembly, it elects the judges of the International Court of Justice.
  • It approves any changes to the United Nations Security Charter.
  • Its powers also include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions and authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions
  • The Veto powers related to most important decisions lies exclusively with the Security Council.

The Composition of UNSC

  • The Security Council consists of fifteen members- consisting of 5 Permanent members and 10 non-permanent members.
  • The Great powers that were the victors of World War 2 – The Soviet Union (Russian Federation), the United Kingdom, the Republic of China and the United States-serve as 5 permanent members.
  • The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members.   
  • Security Council resolutions are typically enforced by UN peace keepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget.

The attitude of the members of the Security Council has been status-quoist, they have been resistant to any change- the importance and the respect of Security Council has reduced for the countries of the developing world as it is not changing according to the changing world dynamics, which can be described as follows-

  • The retreating powers of the victors of Second World War and increase in the economical and military significance of countries like India, Brazil, South Africa, Japan, etc.
  • The Developing world making a very fast development, showing high GDP growth and stagnancy in the economies of the developed countries.
  • The Balance of Power being spread throughout the world, the world moving towards multi literalism and more interdependence.
  • Changing Geo politics, wherein the core concern of the world has changed from military to economy.
  • Also the UNSC has failed to tackle the scenario in Syria, Ukraine and most other parts of the Middle East.
  • Violation of Article 2 of Clause 7, which deals with the non-interference in the internal matters of countries.
  • There has been a lack of consensus between the countries of the P5 members.
  • There has been very few successful examples but the overall track record of the UNSC in maintenance of world peace has not been significant.

Countries of th G4- consisting of India, Brazil, Japan and South Africa and also many other developing countries of the world have been pushing for changes in the UNSC like the following- ( which are opposed by the Coffee Club consisting of Pakistan, Argentina, Turkey etc)

  • Membership Reforms
    • Most countries had suggested wider representation at the UNSC.
    • There is no representation of South America and Africa-which need to be given some representation.
    • Need neutral countries like India and Brazil as the arbitrator.
    • Reduce the over representation of Europe
  • Veto Reforms
    • Most countries had opposed unilateral veto, they had suggested using of veto only in times of absolute necessity.
    • It was suggested that UNGA should have the power to override veto powers.
  • It was also suggested that changes need to be done on the methods of decision making, there should be a difference in procedural and substantive decision making.
  • Larger say of UNGA must be considered at most levels of working of UNSC.


Therefore, it necessary to get out of these issues to help UN realize its initial dream of a hassle free and peaceful world. It is necessary to understand that UN is not the solution for all the problems in the world; however, reforms in it are inevitable due to the changing power structure, economical system and geo politics of the world. Hence, all the nations of the world should have the vision to view things over and above their vested interests and take bold decisions for larger world peace.

BEST ANSWER: Invincible

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