Think Learn & Perform (TLP)

The Only Dedicated Platform for UPSC Mains Answer Writing

Day 17 – Q 2. Discuss the mandate and significance of National Green Tribunal in India.

2. Discuss the mandate and significance of National Green Tribunal in India.

भारत में राष्ट्रीय ग्रीन ट्रिब्यूनल के जनादेश और महत्व पर चर्चा करें।


National Green Tribunal was established in 2010 under National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 to dispose of cases having environmental ramification. Its headed by retired judge of supreme court or being chief justice of high court and almost 20 experts and 20 judicial members.


Mandate of NGT

  1. To dispose of cases dealing with any environment law violation, conservation of forests and natural resources.


The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974

The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974

The Environmental Protection Act ,1986

The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 etc.

Indian forest act, 1927 and wildlife protection act, 1972 are out of purview from this jurisdiction.

  1. Recommend penalties and fine
  2. Recommend policies for environment protection
  3. Disposal of cases within 6 months
  4. Enforcement of any legal right relating to environment
  5. Giving relief and compensation for damages
  6. Has power of civil courts


  • Helps reduce burden on higher courts
  • Faster resolution of cases
  • Specialised member brings efficiency to justice
  • Less expensive than courts
  • Fulfils constitutional provision like article 21 i.e. right to clean environment and article 48(a) i.e. protection of environment and safeguarding of forests
  • The rapid pace of development is harming the environment. The NGT provides a check and balance for this.
  • It takes suo – moto cases like banning the crackers, directing states to speed up action to clean Ganga.


Thus it can be said that NGT acts as equilibrium maker between development and environment. This also helps us in achieving Sustainable development goals 3, 6 and 13. But, we need to fulfil the pending vacancy and bring the remaining environmental laws under its purview.

Best answer – Christina

Print Friendly, PDF & Email