1. Examine the concept of ‘good governance’? What are its various components?
‘सुशासन’ की अवधारणा की जांच करें? इसके विभिन्न घटक क्या हैं?
While Governance is the dynamic exercise of management power and policy, Good governance is concerned with the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development.
The concept is related to the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses. The central focus is to see how the government enables, simplifies and authorises its people, regardless of differences of caste, creed, class, and political ideology and take certain decisions which will be in their best interest. It aims to promote and sustain holistic and integrated human development.
- Good governance is significant in public institutions to conduct and manage public affairs and resources to guarantee human rights in free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law.
- It is significant because it promises to deliver on the promise of human rights: civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights.
- Good governance is thus, a function of installation of positive virtues of administration and elimination of vices of dysfunctionalities.
Elements of good governance:
- Participation – People should be able to voice their own opinions through legitimate immediate organizations or representatives. Example: MP’s, Pressure Groups.
- Rule of Law – Legal framework should be enforced impartially, especially on human right laws. Example: independent judiciary.
- Consensus Oriented – Mediates differing interests to meet the broad consensus on the best interests of a community. Example: GST council- centre and states together.
- Equity and Inclusiveness – People should have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being. Example: affirmative policies for women, children and backward classes.
- Effectiveness and Efficiency – Processes and institutions should be able to produce results that meet the needs of their community while making the best of their resources. Example: Aadhar ensuring targeted delivery, eliminating ghost beneficiaries thus optimum use of limited government resources.
- Accountability – Governmental institutions, private sectors, and civil society organizations should be held accountable to the public and institutional stakeholders. Example: elections.
- Transparency – Information should be accessible to the public and should be understandable and monitored. Example: RTI, Draft bills made public to get feedback.
- Responsiveness – Institutions and processes should serve all stakeholders, respond to their grievances. Example: GST council rationalising tax structure and slew of measures keeping in mind MSME sector, PRAGATI Platform.
Few challenges that are faced in accomplishment of good governance are weak institutions, lack of participation and democratisation, lack of social capital, corruption and other. It is essential to address these challenges to achieve good governance that plays a paramount role in the transformation of predatory state to welfare state.
Best answer: cosmos