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Day 3 – Q 4.Examine various geomorphological processes that lead to the formation of mountains. Take suitable examples.

4. Examine various geomorphological processes that lead to the formation of mountains. Take suitable examples.

विभिन्न भू-भौगोलिक प्रक्रियाओं की जांच करें जो पहाड़ों की उत्पत्ति करते हैं। उपयुक्त उदाहरण लें।

Approach –

Introduction – You can write about what id geo morphological processes. Also, explain which type of processes are called mountain building processes

Body –  Define the different exogenic and endogenic processes that lead to mountain forming

Conclusion – write suitable conclusion.


The process in which external (exogenic) and internal(endogenic) forces cause physical and chemical action and bring changes in the configuration of earth surface and form various landforms is known as geomorphic process. Mountains are significant relief feature of second order. The process of formation of mountain building is known as orogeny.


Various geomorphic process that led to formation of geomorphic processes are as follows –

Endogenic processes

  • Forces of compression (fold mountains) – these are the forces which pushes rock strata against a hard plane which leads to bending of mountains in form of anticline and syncline. These bending of rock layer leads to formation of fold mountains.

There are three types of fold mountains found in world

  • Young fold mountains – Himalaya, Alps
  • Mature fold mountains
  • Old fold mountains – Aravalis, Vindhyachal.

Forces of tension (fault mountain) – These forces work horizontally in opposite direction that leads to formation of fracture. The displacement of rocks upward or downward from their original position along the fracture leads to formation of fault mountains. This is also known as block or horst mountains.

For ex Sierra Nevada mountains of California, Salt range of Pakistan etc.

Volcanism – Movement of tectonic plates create volcanoes along the plate boundaries which erupt and form mountains known as volcano mountains. These type of mountains are also known as mountains of accumulation. For example – mount Fuji (Japan), Mount Mayon (Philipines), Mount Merapi (Sumatra)

Exogenic process

Erosion – Where the general level of the land has been lowered by the agents of           denudation some very resistant areas may remain and these form residual mountains, e.g. Mt. Manodnock in U.S.A. Residual.

Mountains may also evolve from plateaus which have been dissected by rivers into hills and valleys.

Examples of dissected plateaux, where the down-cutting streams have eroded the uplands into mountains of denudation, are the Highlands of Scotland, Scandinavia and the Deccan Plateau.


Thus these are the geomorphological processes which help in mountain- building.

Best answer – Ankita

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