5. The Bhakti poets took India’s literary literary trends to a new direction. Comment.
भक्ति कवियों ने भारत की साहित्यिक प्रवृत्तियों को एक नई दिशा दी। टिप्पणी करें।
Bhakti movement began in the 6th century AD in southern India. It emphasized on complete devotion to the God. There was a strong bond that existed between the God and the worshipper. The movement was popularized by poets like Kabir, Tulsidas, Meerabai, Nanak dev, Basavana etc.
New direction to literary trends:
- Change of language- Creation of new literature and translation of old ones were done in local languages instead of Sanskrit to make them more accessible to the common man. Eg. Tulsidas wrote most of his works and translated Ramayana in Awadhi.
- Development of new forms of literature- Vachana Sahitya by Basvana and dohas by Kabir, were not focused on mythological matters like earlier literature, rather on social matters and social reform.
- Free from patronage- Unlike earlier texts which under royal patronage, sang praises of kings, the bhakti texts were individualistic and concerned with the lives of common man.
- New class of authors- Shudras and other castes started writing, even on religious matters. For example, Tukaram, a shudra by caste wrote on religious matters in Marathi.
- Different form of devotion- Authors like Kabir, preached monotheism which was different from the earlier religious texts. Other authors too produced secular texts that upturned the religious notions of the time.
- Defiance of patriarchal norms- Women saints like Alvar and Meerabai wrote against the prevalent patriarchy of the time.
- Rise of new languages- Many new dialects were popularized, which later attained the status of language like Braj bhasha and Awadhi.
- Beginning of regional literature- This period led to beginning of Bengali, Gujarati, Punjabi and Marathi literature, which still continues to the present day.
Bhakti tradition not only introduced literary changes, but also started trends of social transformation. It represented a break from the rites and ritual based devotion and focused on taking the spirituality to the common man.
Best answer: Christina