1. Why did anti-monarchy sentiments spread in 18th century Europe? Examine.
18 वीं शताब्दी यूरोप में राजतंत्र विरोधी भावनाएं क्यों फैलीं? जांच करें।
In Europe, the eighteenth century was a period of intellectual, social, and political ferment. This time witnessed many events like French Revolution, German unification, establishment of republics etc., mainly due to growing anti-monarchy sentiments.
Reasons for the growth of such sentiments:
- Social factors-
- Feudalism divided the society into rigid classes which resulted in exploitation of peasants
- Interference of church beyond religious affairs and incompetence of monarchy to control it
- Emergence of towns and cities, increased the importance of merchants and artisans
- Economic factors-
- Transition to money based economy from land based increased the importance of trade and investment
- Heavy taxation on peasantry
- Extravagant lifestyles of monarch that depleted the royal treasures
- Burden of frequent wars, that led to increased taxation
- Political factors-
- Wavering trust in monarchy due to inefficient rule
- Rise of middle class and its ability to demand its rights
- American revolution acted as a source of inspiration
- Renaissance and enlightenment-
- Concern for worldly matters was rejected and focus shifted on man’s happiness
- New philosophers emphasized on ideas like liberty, equality and fraternity
Anti-monarchy sentiments, which arose due to changing conditions, further, fuelled the changes in European society by establishing a just and equal order of ruling. Democracy became a dominant political setup and is continuing till date.
Best answer: Christina