Day 26 – Q 5. How did scientific inventions help the industrial revolution? Illustrate.
5. How did scientific inventions help the industrial revolution? Illustrate.
वैज्ञानिक आविष्कारों ने औद्योगिक क्रांति में कैसे मदद की? उदाहरण देकर स्पष्ट करें।
The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban
Scientific inventions played a huge role in industrial revolution
Before mechanization and factories, textiles were made mainly in people’s homes (giving rise to the term cottage industry), with merchants often providing the raw materials and basic equipment, and then picking up the finished product. Workers set their own schedules under this system, which proved difficult for merchants to regulate and resulted in numerous inefficiencies. In the 1700s, a series of innovations led to ever-increasing productivity, while requiring less human energy.
- A) Spinning Jenny: Englishman James Hargreaves (1722-1778) invented the spinning jenny, a machine that enabled an individual to produce multiple spools of threads simultaneously.
- B) The power loom, which mechanized the process of weaving cloth, was developed in the 1780s by English inventor Edmund Cartwright.
2) Iron industry: Iron and steel became essential materials, used to make everything from appliances, tools and machines, to ships, buildings and infrastructure.
- a) Englishman Abraham Darby (1678-1717) discovered a cheaper, easier method to produce cast iron, using a coke-fuelled (as opposed to charcoal-fired) furnace.
- b) British engineer Henry Bessemer (1813-1898) developed the first inexpensive process for mass-producing steel.
Before the advent of the steam engine, raw materials and finished goods were hauled and distributed via horse-drawn wagons, and by boats along canals and rivers.
- In the early 1800s, American Robert Fulton (1765-1815) built the first commercially successful steamboat, and by the mid-19th century, steamships were carrying freight across the Atlantic.
- In the early 1800s, British engineer Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) constructed the first railway steam locomotive. In 1830, England’s Liverpool and Manchester Railway became the first to offer regular, timetabled passenger services. By 1850, Britain had more than 6,000 miles of railroad track.
- Around 1820, Scottish engineer John McAdam (1756-1836) developed a new process for road construction. His technique, which became known as macadam, resulted in roads that were smoother, more durable and less muddy.
4) Communication and Banking:
Communication became easier during the Industrial Revolution
- Telegraph :
In 1837, two Brits, William Cooke (1806-1879) and Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875), patented the first commercial electrical telegraph. In 1866, a telegraph cable was successfully laid across the Atlantic.
- The Industrial Revolution also saw the rise of banks and industrial financiers, as well as a factory system dependent on owners and managers. A stock exchange was established in London in the 1770s; the New York Stock Exchange was founded in the early 1790s.
While the Industrial Revolution brought about a greater volume and variety of factory-produced goods and raised the standard of living for many people, particularly for the middle and upper classes. However, life for the poor and working classes continued to be filled with challenges. Wages for those who laboured in factories were low and working conditions could be dangerous and monotonous. Unskilled workers had little job security and were easily replaceable. Children were part of the labour force and often worked long hours and were used for such highly hazardous tasks as cleaning the machinery.
Thus while Industrial revolution helped to increase quality of life for a section of society it also widened the class divide.
Best Answer: Dazy Rani