2. Discuss the factors that led to the unification of Germany and Italy.
र्मनी और इटली के एकीकरण के कारकों पर चर्चा करें।
During 19th century, Europe witnessed radical changes in the political borders of the states in the region. The major driving force of these unifications and separations was “Nationalism” and rise of “Nation states”. Unification of Germany and Italy are classic examples of nation states.
There are many factors that led to the unification of Germany and Italy.
- Natural Resources such as coal and Iron was widely available in German areas, to take benefit of these resources along with Industrialization, a Unified Germany was required.
- Geographic unity of Italian peninsula was natural factor that played role in unification of the country.
Renaissance and role of thinkers/Philosophers:
- Most of the initial thinkers and philosophers were from Italy and Germany. Therefore, awakening of the mass was inevitable.
- J. G. Fichte gave the concept of German idealism, glorifying German people, language and culture. Similarly, Friedrich Nietzsche gave the slogan of “Live dangerously”.
Trade and economy:
- The progress of German unification was greatly encouraged by the Zollverin, a customs union in Central Germany, where internal trade tariffs were abolished, and a common trade policy with external states was developed. Similar efforts were taken in Italy also.
Uprisings due Exploitation:
- Earlier, Germany never had German rulers. Pop was the deciding authority for the affairs of German states.
- Similarly, after the defeat of Napoleon, Italy was exploited by France under the shield of Treaty of Campo Formio.
Wars and policies of the Napoleon:
- Napoleon abolished the smaller states in the area and established state of West Phalia in Germany. He took similar steps in Italy too.
- “Blood and Iron policy” of Bismarck played an important role in unification of Germany. Similarly, Italy got the great leaders in the form of Mazzini, Garibaldi and Cavour.
- Mazzini formed a nationalist group known as “Young Italy” and called for an end to foreign rule and unification of Italy.
Social and Political Factors:
- Common language and common culture played their role in unification of both the countries.
- Rise of new ideas and a strong wave of nationalism made the unification of both the countries possible.
These are some of the many factors that led to unification of Germany and Italy. Birth of these two new nations started changing the political conditions of Europe, finally leading to most important event in history of the world that is, World War I.