Day 32 – Q 3. How did the 9/11 attack in the United States change the world? Discuss.
3. How did the 9/11 attack in the United States change the world? Discuss.
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका में 9/11 के हमले ने दुनिया को कैसे बदल दिया? चर्चा करें।
September 11, 2001 was a defining moment, not just for America but for the world at large. The attacks that were claimed by “Al-Qaeda” would change the global order of things forever.
The war on terror
- The Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) gave all power to President George Bush to carry out force against any country without legal approval.
- It would go on to produce some critical moments of world history such as the US invasion of Afghanistan in 2002 and the Iraq war of 2003, the impact of which could be felt in its worst form today.
- A year later, America invaded Afghanistan which was the haven of the Taliban, who according to intelligence reports were aiding the “Al-Qaeda”. The following year, the Bush administration embarked upon its first “preventive war”, which laid out the necessity of acting against a country before the danger seemed imminent.
- On the basis of a presumption that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction, America with the support of the United Kingdom, Poland and Australia invaded Iraq. The most devastating result of the armed struggle with Iraq was the terror that envelops the world today in the form of the Islamic State.
Rise of Islamic State and other radical organizations
- Having its origins in the “Al-Qaeda”, the prime grievance of the Islamic State has been that the invasion disturbed the order of things in the region.
- The outrage against the United States provided a unifying force. This, along with the American policy to imprison the Sunni Jihadists in Camp Bucca made the ideal environment for the formation of the radical terrorist organisations.
Immigration and travel since 9/11
- Since the attacks of September 11th, America’s focus on internal security has been paramount. The clearest result of this has been on the immigration rules. The Transport Security Administration (TSA) is involved in carrying out detailed screening and security measures in airports. Further the Aviation and Transport Security Act was also passed.
- Immigration policies had changed drastically throughout the world.
Security measures and Defence spending:
- Security measures for flights and on borders across the world changed like never before. Even inside aircraft, passengers felt the changes as there is always an air of tension. Maritime security also became one of prime focus areas.
- Defence spending US and many other countries increased exponentially considering the environment of mistrust and protectionism.
USA and India since 9/11
- Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, relations between America and India had been on the upswing due to converging economic interests. The attacks on the WTC accelerated the process wherein India’s role in combating religious extremism in Asia was seen as vital. Since 2001 there has been a sustained effort in increasing military cooperation between the two countries. It includes Indo-US nuclear deal, LEMOA and joint military exercises, etc.
Rise of jingoism and Islamophobia:
- Extreme form of nationalism and success of right wing politics increased its pace after 9/11 attack. It increased the feeling of hatred for ‘outsiders’.
- One of the most devastating change is abrupt rise in Islamophobia, which includes hatred and phobia related to middle eastern and some eastern cultures and languages. It gave rise to mistrust and conspiracy theories throughout the world.
International cooperation on fight against terrorism:
- Aftermath of 9/11, terrorism became one of the important aspect of foreign policy. Sharing of information, establishments such as FATF (Financial Action Task Force) etc are some of the examples of cooperation among countries against terrorism.
- India gained international support for its fight against terrorism, especially along the borders.
- American strategy of ‘war on terror’ had come as a ray of hope for India that was struggling to develop security measures in the aftermath of several terror attacks in the subcontinent over the past decade.
- However, 17 years since the 9/11 attack, India is yet to become full immune when it comes to terror activity within its domains.
- Though many security measures were taken throughout the world in aftermath of 9/11, but there is need to take multifaceted, political, economic, social, approach to reclaim the global peace.
Best Answer: Sreelakshmy Vijayan Uma