5. How did the Kargil war of 1999 affect the geopolitics of South Asia? Discuss.
1999 के कारगिल युद्ध ने दक्षिण एशिया के भू-राजनीति को कैसे प्रभावित किया? चर्चा करें।
After nuclear tests of two rival countries of South Asia, India and Pakistan in 1998, Kargil was the first major conflict in 1999 which almost took the shape of bloody war with heavy losses of life and economy. This event, also known as Operation Vijay changed the course of South Asian geopolitics forever.
Immediate geopolitical effects of Kargil war:
- International community including China, nearly unanimously convicted that Pakistan was culpable.
- India Confirms Its Worst Beliefs about Pakistan are true.
- Pakistan realised that Kargil-like operations are not viable in the current international environment.
- With a coup d’état, Pakistan came under military rule
Long term effects on South Asian geopolitics
- It was beginning of international isolation of Pakistan.
- Aftermath of war decreased the legitimacy of Pakistan on international platforms.
- Close watch of international community increased over two Nuclear powers India and Pakistan to avoid any major war.
- Pakistan realised that Kargil-like operations are not viable in the current global environment, so it adopted other tactics such as Proxy war or terrorist activities and increased militancy.
- These tactics are to “calibrate” the heat of the insurgency in Kashmir and possibly pressure India through the expansion of violence in other portions of India’s territory, for example 2008 Mumbai Terror Attack.
- On one hand proximity between China and Pakistan increased, on the other hand relations between India and Afghanistan also reached to another level.
- India Strengthened its Determination to Marginalize Pakistan on Kashmir
- One of the major impacts of Kargil war is decline of SAARC and subsequent rise of BIMSTEC.
- Moral victory of India in Kargil strengthened the position of India as idol of democracy and net security provider amongst South Asian countries such as Nepal, Bhutan
- Kargil was India’s first televised war. India made use of the media to shape domestic and international response in its favor.
- The international reaction to the Kargil intrusion, particularly from the United States, G-8, UN, and China, demonstrated to India the power of world opinion to restrict Pakistan’s options at all levels of diplomacy and war.
- Though the war brought heavy losses to India but a moral victory in this war helped India to establish its leading position within South Asian countries.
Best Answer: Ankur