Think Learn & Perform (TLP)

The Only Dedicated Platform for UPSC Mains Answer Writing

Day 48 – Q 5. There is a need to introduce second generation land reforms in India. Do you agree? Substantiate your views.

5. There is a need to introduce second generation land reforms in India. Do you agree? Substantiate your views.  

भारत में दूसरी पीढ़ी के भूमि सुधारों को लागू करने की आवश्यकता है। क्या आप सहमत हैं? अपने विचारों की पुष्टि करें।


Second generation land reforms are aimed at reorganizing state and collective farms into family-size units and introducing market-oriented land systems. It is broadly about leaving resource allocation and production decisions to market forces rather than to the government institutions.


Need for reforms:

  • Universality- Previous reforms like tenancy act, land ceiling etc. benefitted many farmers but the benefits were unevenly distributed across classes and regions. New reforms are required to cover all potential beneficiaries.
  • Land market development- Issues in land acquisition, transfer and lease of land prevents the development of a sound market mechanism where land is seen just as a resource that can help its owners in distress situation.
  • Improved output- Land leasing, co-operative farming, contract farming etc. help farmers get better returns from the same piece of land, but it can only be exercised with increased market forces at play.
  • Gender equality- There has been increased feminization of agriculture due to male migration, but women are still denied ownership rights over land.

How it can be accomplished:

  • Land records modernization/computerization- Digital India Land Records Modernisation Programme (DILRMP) has been launched.
  • Appropriate land compensation- The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 is meant to provide owners with rightful compensation.
  • Land leasing- Model Agricultural Land Leasing Act, 2016 can help in this regard.
  • Contract farming- Draft Model Contract Farming Act, 2018 has been released to strengthen rules and regulations regarding this.
  • Consolidation of land holdings so that huge machineries can be utilized
  • FDI in agricultural sector
  • Co-operative farming
  • Use of land banks and land pooling


For achievement of faster, sustainable and inclusive growth there is need for second generation land reform. The reforms can also help in achieving the goal of doubling farmers income by 2022.

Best answer: Sreelakshmy Viajayan Uma

Print Friendly, PDF & Email