Day 53 – Q 5. What is the threat perception associated wit China’s aggressive infrastructure expansion in the border areas? Discuss.
5. What is the threat perception associated wit China’s aggressive infrastructure expansion in the border areas? Discuss.
सीमा क्षेत्रों में चीन के आक्रामक बुनियादी ढांचे के विस्तार से जुड़ी खतरा धारणा क्या है? चर्चा करें।
China’s “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) policy is aimed at investing large sums of money in infrastructure development in the area between the two Silk Roads, in an effort to join them together and create one ordered area. This extends beyond mere economic activity, however, and includes establishing a whole host of rules, from cultural exchange to the movement of people.
Threat perception with regard to Chinese excessive expansion in border areas:
1)Threat to India’s Sovereignty: China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, or CPEC, which passes through Pakistan-occupied Kashmir. The corridor threatens territorial integrity of nation.
2)Expansion of Military: The infrastructure being built by China, including roads, railways and ports, will benefit China’s military, enabling Beijing to secure an effective means for communication and the movement of troops in a contingency.
This would enable rapid mobilisation of military at the times of conflict
3)Control of Maritime trade: CPEC gives China a foothold in the western Indian Ocean with the Gwadar port, located near the strategic Strait of Hormuz, where Chinese warships and a submarine have surfaced. Access here allows China greater potential to control maritime trade in that part of the world – a vulnerable point for India, which sources more than 60 percent of its oil supplies from the Middle East.
4)Curtail India’s influence in neighbourhood: Nepal which was historically close to India is now seeking help from China to use its ports for transport of goods ,The proposed rail corridor between Kathmandu and Tibet is example of growing influence of China in Nepal.
5)Threats of insurgency in North East: The illegal use of money and providing external help in forms of arms can cause unrest in North East.
India realises the potential risks and hence has its own set of connectivity initiatives such as Myanmar’s Kaladan project, the Chabahar port project with Iran, as well as the north-south corridor with Russia which could be potentially leveraged. The proposed 7200-kilometer International North South Transportation Corridor is a ship, rail and road transportation system connecting the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea via Iran to Russia and North Europe.
India need to be cautious with growing influence of China and at same time strive and improve its infrastructure in North East and its relations with neighbouring countries.
Best Answer: Lame Name
China is pursuing aggressive infrastructure expansion of both human and physical infrastructure in border areas. This is evident from:
- Karakoram highway
- Resettlement of Chinese citizens in Tibet with the intention to change the regional ethnic mix.
- Surveillance of Uighurs in Xinjiang
- Industrial development with policy reform to promote industrialization in its interior areas.
This infrastructure expansion entails the following threat perception from India’s standpoint:
- Illegal migrants:
- Social harmony will be disrupted as illegal migrants, disgruntled with Chinese surveillance and intrusive governance might flee to bordering Indian territory (e.g.: Tibetans, Uighurs etc.)
- These migrants might also upset the local resource balance, given that even Indian border areas are relatively underdeveloped.
- Military threat:
- In case of conflict, this infrastructure would facilitate rapid mobilization of arms and personnel against India. Given our topographic realities along Chinese border, we might lag behind.
- The frequency of border intrusions by Chinese military might increase further.
- It curtails India’s sphere of influence in the Himalayan and South Asian region (Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh etc.) where China would be able to play a more proactive role, as is evident from its mobilization during Nepal earthquake (2015).
a. China now proposes a tunnel railway project between Tibet and Kathmandu.
b. BCIM corridor is another step in this direction.
- It would further strengthen the anti-India sentiments in Indian neighbourhood by using is (money and military) hard power, thereby creating new security threats for India, such as by:
- Supporting insurgency
- Illegal arms, ammunitions,
- Money laundering and FCNR etc.
India needs to shore up its military and security weakness vis-à-vis China to counter this threat perception.