4. Discuss the institutional framework of disaster management in India.
भारत में आपदा प्रबंधन के संस्थागत ढांचे पर चर्चा करें।
India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique Geo-Climatic conditions. Floods, Droughts, Cyclones are recurrent phenomenon. Development cannot be sustained unless disaster events are effectively managed.
The Disaster Management Act, 2005 deals with the management of disasters. This act envisaged a three tier Disaster Management structure in India at National, States and District levels. Under the act, the NDMA, SDMA, NEC, NDRF, NIDM and disaster related funds were established.
Institutional structure for disaster management is hierarchical and functions at three levels – centre, state and district. It is a multi-stakeholder setup, i.e., the structure draws involvement of various relevant ministries, government departments and administrative bodies.
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
- Is a National Authority responsible for laying down the policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management and for ensuring timely and effective response to disaster.
- It consists of nine members with prime minister as its ex-officio chairperson.
National Executive Committee (NEC)
- NEC is responsible for assisting NDMA in execution of various functions for disaster management like Implementing the plans and policies of NDMA; Ensuring compliance with the directives of Central Government; To act as a coordinating and monitoring body for disaster management; Prepare the National Plan to be approved by the NDMA; Prepare guidelines for different ministries with respect to disaster management.
State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)
- A state Disaster Management Authority is established by every state government.
- The Chief Minister of the state is the chairperson of SDMA. There are maximum 9 members other than the chairperson.
State Executive Committee (SEC)
- The state government also creates a State Executive Committee to assist the State Authority in the performance of its functions and to coordinate action in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the State Authority and ensure the compliance of directions issued by the State Authority.
- Its powers and functions are almost a replica of the NEC at state level.
District Disaster Management Authority
- The DDMA are set up by state government via a notification in the state budget. It consists of Chairperson and seven members. The collector or District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner would be the chairman.
- The DDMA works as a district planning, coordinating and implementing body for disaster management.
- It will coordinate with the upper two tiers of the structure and will plan the implementation of the prevention, mitigation and preparedness at local level.
National Disaster Response Force
- For the purpose of specialist response to a threatening disaster situation or disaster. The general superintendence, direction and control of the Force shall be vested and exercised by NDMA.
National Disaster Response Fund
- For meeting any threatening disaster situation or disaster. The central government will be able to use the money from this fund to meet expenses for emergency response, relief and rehabilitation.
National Institute of Disaster Management
- It is responsible for planning and promoting training and research in the area of disaster management.
- It is a premier national organization working for human resource development at national level in the area of disaster management.
Ineffectiveness in preparedness and coordination, lack of implementation capacity at state level, not constituting Disaster Mitigation Fund, inadequate technology and manpower remain as challenge in Disaster Management. Challenges needs to be addressed to reduce vulnerability and achieve disaster resilience.
Best answer: Krishnakant