3. What transpired in the Congress of Vienna? Was is a success? Critically examine.
वियना की कांग्रेस में क्या हुआ? क्या यह एक सफलता थी? समालोचनात्मक जांच करें।।
The Congress of Vienna was held from September of 1814 to June of 1815. After the downfall of Napoleon Bonaparte, this international conference was called to create a balance among the European powers in such a way so as to prevent future wars and maintain peace and stability on the European continent and to reorganize the Europe.
Congress was held between Royal leaders of Europe from Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace.
The major outcomes of Vienna congress are as follows:
- Restoration of Legitimacy: This is the concept that the royal leaders before Napoleon are true and legitimate leaders.
- Balance of power: Which advocated for power distribution among royal leaders of Europe to maintain peace and stability
- Pledge to stop any revolution in future: conservative leaders were anti revolution especially any revolution for democracy.
- Encircled France to make buffer around it with strong countries and to keep France contained.
- Holy Alliance– for the protection against democratic alliance.
- Restoration of Louis the XVIII to French throne
- German Confederation Formation with 34 German states
Positive impact it had on European history:
- The congress was the first occasion in history where, on a continental scale, national representatives came together to formulate treaties
- The arrangements made by the Four Great Powers sought to ensure future disputes would be settled in a manner that would avoid the terrible wars of the previous 20 years.
- Prevented another widespread European war for nearly 100 years (1815–1914) and created relatively long-term stability and peaceful conditions in most of Europe
Limitations / negative aspects of the congress:
- Mainly, the four major powers of Europe (Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain) were left to make most of the big decisions.
- The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe
- No proper procedure followed.
- Ignored national and liberal impulses, causing the subsequent suppression of the emerging national and liberal movements
- Imposed a stifling reaction on the Continent
- It has been seen as a reactionary movement for the benefit of traditional monarchs.
- Although the Congress of Vienna preserved the balance of power in Europe, it could not check the spread of revolutionary movements across the continent some 30 years later.
The Congress System was deliberate conflict management, and was the first genuine attempt to create an international order based upon consensus rather than conflict. The goal of the congress was to re-establish a balance of power among the countries of Europe and have peace between the nations. The Congress proved to be highly successful in achieving its goal, for the peace in Europe was left almost undisturbed for the decades to come.