Day 4 – Q 5.The first half of the 20th century witnessed two bloody global wars. This period also stood witness to a wide array of inventions in the fields of aviation, weapons and nuclear technologies. Can you discuss at least 5 such inventions and their impacts on the world?
5. The first half of the 20th century witnessed two bloody global wars. This period also stood witness to a wide array of inventions in the fields of aviation, weapons and nuclear technologies. Can you discuss at least 5 such inventions and their impacts on the world?
20 वीं शताब्दी पूर्वार्ध में दो खूनी वैश्विक युद्ध हुए। यह अवधि विमानन, हथियार और परमाणु प्रौद्योगिकियों के क्षेत्र में कई प्रकार के आविष्कारों की गवाह बनी। क्या आप कम से कम 5 ऐसे आविष्कारों और विश्व पर उनके प्रभावों पर चर्चा कर सकते हैं?
The period between 1900-1950 was one of the most horrific and murderous in the history of mankind as it has witnessed two global wars which engulfed the entire world. The devastation caused to men and material was unimaginable which was accelerated by the technical inventions during that period.
Some of the significant inventions are as follows:
- Aircrafts: First practical aircraft was invented by Wright brothers in 1903. During world war 1 aeroplanes came into military use. Ex: Zepellin by Germany. The period between world war 1 and world war 2 saw the development of jet fighters. World War 2 developed efficacy in strategic bombing. Ex: V2, Azon, Fritz x, etc.,
- Machine guns: Invented in 1912. First used in WW1 (Battle of Somme)
- Tanks: Invented during the summer of 1918. Extensively used during WW2.
Ex: USSR’s T-26, 40, 60 and UK’s Mark-1
3. Submarines: First used in 1940, led to the advent of underwater battle.
Ex: Japan’s KAITEN and UK’s HMS Venturer.
- Nuclear technology:
- Atomic bombs: 1930- 40s witnessed large scale developments in nuclear technology. Project Manhattan by USA led to atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Impact of these inventions:
Geo-political: The arms race divided the world into two major blocs,one led by USA and other USSR. The third world countries were rallied around these super powers. Ex: NATO of US, Warsaw pact of the soviet union during cold war. This factionalism is to be seen even today in Syria war, Korean peninsula crisis, Middle east crisis, etc.
Economic: Many developed countries realised the need of having a strong military and hence relied on either imports or joint development of armaments. Most of the major economies are also military super powers. The defence budget of most of the nations is more than the expenditure on welfare activities.
Social: Although the deterrence created by strong military has saved many lives across the world but the constant war mongering has also led to deep social cleavages. Ex: War led poverty and communal violence across many nations.
Institutional: After effect of world war and subsequent arms race and nuclear proliferation led to creation of institutions and pacts like UN, NPT, MTCR, Wassenar agreement, etc.
But, this period can also be considered as a blessing in disguise as the inventions were used for devastation as well as betterment of mankind. Aviation today has reduced the travelling time to a great extent and increased interconnectivity among people across the globe, nuclear energy if harnessed properly is seen as an alternative source of energy and inventions in medical field has saved numerous lives.