4. What led to the large scale decolonisation post World War II? Analyse.
द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध के बाद बड़े पैमाने पर उपनिवेशवाद के विघटन के कारण क्या थे? विश्लेषण करें।
Decolonization is the action or process of a state withdrawing from a former colony, leaving it independent. After 1945 many states in Europe and Asia were decolonized. Mainly decolonization started in Asia, Africa and Middle East.
Factors led to decolonization post world war II:
- Lack of resources: After World War II many nations had financial crunch, ran out of financial resources, and bad administration which no longer could help them maintain colonies.
- Freedom movements: Many independence movements started in colonial states. Many countries took the advantage of that.
- Education and literature: Education and western literatures gave room for rational thinking and independence thoughts.
- Third world: Many exploited and ignored states came together to oppose Imperialism.
- Non-aligned movement: Nehru from India, Tito the communist leader from Yugoslavia, Nasser from Egypt successfully opposed French and British imperial powers.
- Establishment of United Nations: United nations put pressure on imperial countries like UK, France to provide independence to colonies. Nation-state has been accepted as ideal form of political organization.
- New international economic order: In 1961, non-aligned movement was followed by formation of United Nations conference on trade and development (UNCTD) which tried to promote new international economic order. It emphasized the importance of under developed countries.
- Cold war: United States and USSR pressurized European allies to give independence and free them.
- Atlantic charter (1941): it stated that people should have the right to choose their own government.
- Influence from newly decolonized countries: Many states were influenced from the neighbouring countries for decolonization and they had mutual support.
- Social causes: various films, books, museum displayed the impact of colonization which rose national feeling and patriotism among colonies.
- Neo-colonialism started: practice of using capitalism and globalization by their power and administration.
It can be inferred that post World War II, European nation were unable to have control on their colonies due to strong and persistent opposition by the colonies along with pressure from new super powers i.e. USA and USSR. However, decolonization prolonged for decades in Asia and Africa and many were freed after huge struggle.