Day 29 – Q 1.What measures have been taken by the governments to protect and promote the rights and interests of the girl child? How are they performed? Discuss.
1. What measures have been taken by the governments to protect and promote the rights and interests of the girl child? How are they performed? Discuss.
बालिकाओं के अधिकारों और हितों को बढ़ावा देने के लिए सरकारों ने क्या उपाय किए हैं? उनका प्रदर्शन कैसे रहा है? चर्चा करें।
A low child sex ratio (919), incidences of child marriage and child pregnancy, malnutrition and denial of education beyond primary show the dismal state of girl child in India.
Measures for welfare of girl child:
- Improving sex ratio– Beti Padhao, Beti Bachao Scheme, Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act are meant to prevent sex selective abortions and improve sex ratio in the country.
- Female education– Sukanya Samridhi Yojana creates a fund for the future education of the girl child and Udan for higher education of girl child.
- Child Marriage– Prohibition of Child marriage Act 2006 has been enacted to prevent marriage of girls below 18 years of age.
- Health and nutrition– Supplying iron and folic acid tablets, Kishori Shakti Yojana, POSHAN abhiyan, Mid day meal scheme have been undertaken to provide sufficient nutrition to girl child.
- Hygiene– Ujjwala sanitary napkin at minimal cost under Suvidha scheme will support menstrual hygienic among girls.
- Child labour– The Child Labour(Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016 has been enacted to make sure girls are not indulged in chil labour and instead get education.
- Sexual abuse– Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012 provides strict punitive action in case of sexual abuse against the child.
- Human trafficking– Ujjawala scheme to prevent, rescue and rehabilitate trafficked girl.
Performance of the above mentioned measures:
- Increase in child sex ratio in Haryana (913 in 2018 from 834 in Census 2011) which used to have the lowest sex ratio in the country.
- Increasing usage of sanitary pads among girls
- Improvement in health and nutrition, and reduction in anemia.
- Increased attendance and decreased drop out rates.
- Reduction in child marriages
- Sex ratio is still very low compared to developed countries and there exists a huge disparity among northern and southern states.
- Girls are still denied higher education due to burden to support family or patriarchal mindset (57% girls drop out by Class XI).
- Child labour is still prevalent especially as domestic labours, which do not come under formal employment and hence difficult to monitor.
The schemes have had mixed results and to achieve the real objective and SDG 5 robust structural and institutional mechanisms must be created to ensure proper implementation of these schemes in letter and spirit.