Day 33 – Q 3.What are the applications of nano-technology in the medical field?
3. What are the applications of nano-technology in the medical field?
चिकित्सा क्षेत्र में नैनो-प्रौद्योगिकी के अनुप्रयोग क्या हैं?
Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. Physicist Richard Feynman is the father of nanotechnology.
Nanomedicine is an application of nanotechnology which works in the field of health and medicine. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices to nanoelectronic biosensors and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. Some applications are discussed below.
- Drug Delivery: Nanoparticles are used for site-specific drug delivery. In this technique, the required drug dose is used and side-effects are lowered significantly as the active agent is deposited in the morbid region only. Targeted medicine reduces drug consumption and side-effects. This highly selective approach can reduce costs and pain to the patients.
- Tissue Engineering: With the help of nanotechnology, damaged tissue can be reproduced or repaired. These artificially stimulated cells might revolutionize the transplantation of organs or artificial implants.
- Antibacterial Treatments: Researchers are developing a technique to kill bacteria using gold nanoparticles and infrared light. This method may lead to improved cleaning of instruments in hospital settings.
- Wound Treatment: Researchers have demonstrated a bandage that applies electrical pulses to a wound using electricity produced by nanogenerators worn by the patient.
- Cell Repair: Nanorobots could be programmed to repair specific diseased cells, functioning in a similar way to antibodies in our natural healing processes.
- Cancer Treatment: Nanoparticles have a high surface area to volume ratio. This allows for many functional groups to be attached to a nanoparticle, which can seek out and bind to certain tumour cells. Iron nanoparticles or gold shells are finding important application in cancer treatment.
- Imaging: In vivo imaging is another area where tools and devices are being developed. Using nanoparticle contrast agents, images such as ultrasound and MRI have a favourable distribution and improved contrast.
- Blood purification: In contrast to dialysis, which works on the principle of the size-related diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of fluid across a semi-permeable membrane, the purification with nanoparticles allows specific targeting of substances. Additionally larger compounds which are commonly not dialyzable can be removed using Magnetic microparticles.
- Medical Device: Neuro-electronic interfacing is a visionary goal dealing with the construction of nanodevices that will permit computers to be joined and linked to the nervous system.
- Gene sequencing: has become more efficient with the invention of nanodevices like gold nanoparticles, these gold particles when tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample.
- Stem Cell Technology: Nanotechnology has made an excellent contribution to the field of stem cell research. For example, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been successfully used to isolate and group stem cells.
Advancement in the field of nanotechnology and its applications to the field of medicines and pharmaceuticals has revolutionized the twentieth century. A nanotechnology is a valuable tool for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. The medical area of nanoscience application has many projected benefits and is potentially valuable for all human races.