Day 43 – Q 3.Milk and dairy industries are highly developed in the USA, Europe and New Zealand? Why? Also, explain their distribution in these locations.
3. Milk and dairy industries are highly developed in the USA, Europe and New Zealand? Why? Also, explain their distribution in these locations.
दूध और डेयरी उद्योग संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका, यूरोप और न्यूजीलैंड में अत्यधिक विकसित हैं? क्यूं? इसके अलावा, इन स्थानों में उनके वितरण की व्याख्या करें।
India is the largest producer of milk followed by United States of America and China. Operation Flood, known as the ‘billion liter idea,’ as conceived by Dr Verghese Kurien made the dairy farming India’s largest self-sustaining industry and the largest rural employment provider.
Distribution and Factors Influencing Dairy Industry:
Only a few geographical areas have concentration of scientific dairy industry. It is more visible within temperate region. Though, recently, some tropical countries like India are also coming up at a tremendous speed.
Factors for the Growth of Dairy Industry:
Several favourable factors in unison played positive role in the overall development, of dairy industry in the U.S.A.:
- Vast expense of grazing land.
- Advancement of mixed farming that minimizes risk in dairy.
- Export facilities through ports.
- Speedy transportation of the perishable milk items.
- Huge capital, government assistance, and internal demand of the milk products.
- Location: At least 30 states produce dairy products. Among these, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, New Mexico are forerunners in milk production.
- Traditional expertise of dairy and livestock ranching.
- Availability of grassland and less competition from agriculture.
- Ample scope of special breeding and research activities.
- Huge internal demand and export facilities.
- Denmark, Holland, France, Switzerland and U.K.( Lancashire, Yorkshire and Scottish lowland areas) are famous for dairy industry.
New Zealand produces a substantial amount of milk and milk products. Productivity of the cows are also very high i.e. over 5,000kg/cow/year—about 14 litres/cow/day.
- New Zealand has cold and humid climate, low undulating plains which provides luxuriant, perennial growth of nutritious grass.
- It makes grazing possible throughout the year which makes fodder costs cheaper.
- Geographically, New Zealand is located far away from the market of milk products. So, Liquid milk is converted into such as butter, cheese and powdered milk/ It has benefits such as
- Longer shelf life, can products withstand long sea journey.
- Higher value per unit product (compared to liquid milk)
- Co-operative farming : Fonterra, a co-operative is responsible for 30% of the world’s dairy exports. For a nation of just under 4.5 million, New Zealand’s dairy exports performance is startling. It is the world’s largest exporter of butter and second only to the EU in cheese exports.
In New Zealand, dairy industry is more developed within Taranaki Plain, Auckland region and Canterbury region.
Though India is the highest producer of milk in the world, It lags behind in productivity levels. Milk and Dairy sector has a crucial role to play in achieving Government’s goal of Doubling Farmers income by 2022.