4. What are those factors that make China the top silk producer in the world? Discuss.
वे कौन से कारक हैं जो चीन को दुनिया में शीर्ष रेशम उत्पादक बनाते हैं? चर्चा करें।
China is the world’s largest silk producer. The vast majority of Chinese silk originates from mulberry silkworms. According to International Sericultural Commission, China accounts for 75 percent of global raw silk production and 90 percent of the world export market.
Factors that make China the leading producer include:
- Climate Conditions and Industrial location: Temperate and Tropical climate conditions along with heavy rainfall are suitable for growth of unvoltine, bivoltine and polyvoltine silk varieties. (Tropicalisation and popularisation of bivoltine sericulture has been a challenge for India). Lower Yangtze valley is one of the finest region for white mulberry silk. Its proximity to Shanghai textile industries has been an advantage.
- Technology: The Chinese scientists have developed hybrid varieties using European and Japanese silkworms, which makes it possible to rear silkworms’ up to seven times a year.
- Labour: Chinese were the first country to start sericulture and they have abundant skilled personals.
- Innovative Practices: They have started integrating sericulture with fish rearing (Silkworm and their waste is fed to fishes). This adds to the income growth and attracts more number of people into this business. Regions such as Pearl River valley.
- Government Support: Sericulture has been done through cooperatives (Silk Communes) this ensures efficient and standard production as compared to individual farmers. Government here also provides incentives such as training, project prioritization, land policy exemptions, energy discount, and tax breaks etc.
- Better export promotion policies have ensured better return on investments and better quality protection has ensured trust on Chinese silk.
India stands at second position in terms of silk production. India’s silk demand is greater than its production, there exists huge scope for improvement in productivity. With potential to generate huge employment especially for women, improving income of farmers and in preserving the biodiversity makes sericulture one good viable option in India.