Day 4 – Q 4. Examine the factors that led to the rise of and extremist trend within the Congress circles? What were the most characteristic attributes of this trend? Analyse.
4. Examine the factors that led to the rise of and extremist trend within the Congress circles? What were the most characteristic attributes of this trend? Analyse.
उन कारकों की जांच करें, जिनके कारण कांग्रेस हलकों के भीतर चरमपंथी प्रवृत्ति बढ़ी? इस प्रवृत्ति के सबसे विशिष्ट लक्षण क्या थे? विश्लेषण करें।
When the failure of moderate politics became quite apparent by the end of the 19th century, reaction set in from within the congress circles and this new trend is referred to as the ‘Extremists’ trend. This extremism developed in three main regions and under the leadership of three important individuals- Bipin Chandra Pal in Bengal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak in Maharashtra and Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab.
The factors that led to the rise of and extremist trend within the Congress circles
- Frustration with moderate politics was definitely the major reason behind the rise of extremists’ reaction. The congress under moderate leadership was being governed by an undemocratic constitution, although after repeated attempts by Tilak, a new constitution was drafted and rectified in 1899, it was never given a proper trial.
- Moderate politics reached a dead end as most of their demands remained unfulfilled and this was certainly a major reason behind the rise of extremism.
- The failure of the Moderates to win any notable success other than the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian Councils Act (1892).
- The partition of Bengal in 1905 opened the eyes of the Indians to the true colors of the British rulers.
Characteristic attributes of the extremists trend
- The extremist goal was ‘swaraj’. This, at that time either meant complete autonomy and freedom from British control, or a total Indian control over the administration.
- Extremists called for boycotting of foreign goods and the use of swadeshi goods.
- They vehemently opposed the appeasement policy of the moderates. Leaders like Tilak gave the slogan, “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it”.
- They were strongly against British imperialistic policies in India. They took pride in Indian culture and history. They looked at the ancient scriptures for inspiration and courage.
- They were very vocal in their opposition to the British rule unlike the moderates who had faith in British justice. They did not believe in loyalty to the British Crown.
- They tried to instill self-respect and patriotism in the people by invoking the great heroes of past like Shivaji maharaja, Rani Laxmibai etc.
The extremists drew inspiration from India’s past, invoked the great episodes in the history of the Indian people and tried to infuse national pride and self-respect among them. Idealizing western culture gives the Indians an inferiority complex. The rich history of India was revived by them, especially with regard to Hindu history and ideologies.