1. What is Rainbow Revolution? What are its primary objectives? Discuss.
इंद्रधनुष क्रांति क्या है? इसके प्राथमिक उद्देश्य क्या हैं? चर्चा करें।
Rainbow revolution is an integral development programme of agriculture, horticulture, forestry, sugarcane, fishery, poultry and animal husbandry. It includes the integration of all the other agricultural revolutions like Green revolution, Blue revolution, Yellow revolution etc.
The agricultural policy of 2000 envisaged holistic development of Indian agriculture and aimed to achieve through Rainbow revolution.Economic survey 2015-16 observed, “Indian agriculture is in a way, a victim of its own pas success, especially the Green revolution”. It suggested an Integral development programme to make the agricultural sustainability and Rainbow revolution as a concept was developed eventually.
Objectives of Rainbow revolution:
- Sustainability: Agricultural practices has to be reoriented to maintain environmental sustainability as well as resource sustainability. E.g,
- promotion of zero budget natural farming/organic farming to reduce use of chemicals in agriculture.
- Crop diversification in water stress areas like Punjab and Haryana.
- Promoting soil health through schemes like soil health cards, practices like rain water harvesting made compulsory etc.
- Promoting lab to land exhibition, investing in research and development of agricultural technologies.
- Farm income: To increase the annual growth rate in agriculture over 4%.
- Scale of agriculture production: Objective is to increase the collective cropped area which would help in increased capital investment and use of latest agricultural technologies and machines to increase agricultural productivity. E.g. greater private sector participation through contract farming, promote cooperative farming, leasing of farm machines, subsidizing the purchase of new machines (sub mission on agricultural mechanization) etc.,
- Price protection to farmers: Agricultural contracts, promotion of practices like warehouse receipts, promotion of agricultural exports through improved quality of agricultural produce (latest Agriculture export policy) etc.,
- Market availability to farmers: To dismantle the restrictions on movement of agricultural commodities throughout the country. Ensuring sufficient number of godowns, warehousing and cold storage facilities etc.,
- Insurance protection to farmers: inclusion of all farmers in agricultural insurance scheme (PM Fasal Bhima yojana) and eventually to cover all crops (horticulture produce is introduced lately on a pilot basis).
- Elimination of Regional disparity in agriculture: Rainfed areas are mostly reeled with low farmer income and productivity. Rainbow revolution through climate specific and farmer specific selection of crops and inclusion of allied sectors to increase farmer income is an objective.
- Harness the potential of Indian agriculture which hitherto unexplored. E.g. Blue revolution is a part of Indian foreign policy with cooperation with other countries. Incentivise the crops like pulses etc through inclusion to MSP to attain agricultural as well as nutritional security.
MS Swaminathan gave the call for evergreen revolution and this is possible only through the integrated and holistic approach to agricultural development. It involves leading innovation in agriculture, enabling farmers big and small, driving a sustainable intensification of agriculture, enhancing human health etc., With uncertainty of climate, low farm income and growth, nutritional issues – rainbow revolution is a way addressing these issues in the most comprehensive way making agriculture not only profitable but also sustainable.